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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two types of flowers on same plants called disk and ray flowers; series of bracts surrounding inflorescence
6 showy tepals; 6 stamens; superior ovary
Shrub with opposite leaves; 3 fused carpels with one mature seed in fruit; inferior ovary
3-ranked leaves; single ovule in superior ovary; no perianth; stem hollow
monoecious; basal, linear leaves; wetland plant
Flowers zygomorphic; pollen aggregated into pollinia; ovary
6 showy tepals; leaves basal and 2-ranked; radial symmetry; inferior ovary
Ovary inferior; sheathing leaf base; 2 fused carpels forming
a schizocarp; inflorescence an umbel
3-ranked leaves; many-seeded capsule; 3-parted flowers;
stem round, solid; flowers inconspicuous, wind-pollinated
4 free petals, actinomorphic floral symmetry; inferior
flowers bilabiate; fruit of four basally-attached nutlets;
iridoids present
Plant monoecious; inflorescence surrounded by a single
showy bract; smell of carrion
Infloresescence, called a spikelet, subtended by 2 bracts, zygomorphic; wind pollinated; stems hollow
Didynamous stamens; bilabiate corolla; fruit a many
seeded capsule

What is it? Name a family it is found in.
Inflorescence in which several flowers are grouped together to form a flower-like structure. Real flowers generally greatly reduced.

Found in Asteraceae

What is it? Name one family where it is found.
A collection or rosette of bracts subtending a flower cluster, umbel, or the like.

Found in Asteraceae.

What is it? Name one family in which it is found.
An inflorescence consisting of a spike with a fleshy or thickened axis, usually enclosed in a spathe.

Found in Araceae
Petaloid styles

What is it? Name one family in which it is found.
Styles that resemble petals.

Found in Iridaceae.

What is it? Name one family in which it is found.
Enlarged, aboveground portion of stem, present in many tropical orchids, in which moisture is stored.

What is it? Name one family in which it is found.
Column-like structure composed of united stamens and style. Found in orchids.

What is it? Name one family in which it is found.
Chafflike bracts of the inflorescence of grasses (Poaceae) and sedges. Especially one of the pair of bracts at the base of a spikelet.

What is it? Name one family in which it is found.
Unusual appendage about the pistil, as the bottle-shaped body in the sedges (Cyperaceae), and the bristles or scales in some other genera
Monocots Vs. Dicots

Typical number of flower parts.
Monocots: 3

Dicots: 4, 5, rarely 3
Monocots Vs. Dicots

Vascular Cambium in secondary stem tissue.
Monocots: not present

Dicots: often present
Monocots Vs. Dicots

Number of pollen apertures.
Monocots: monosulcate

Dicots: monosulcate or tricolpate
Monocots Vs. Dicots

Number of cotyledons
Monocots: 1

Dicots: 2
Monocots Vs. Dicots

Leaf venation
Monocots: parallel

Dicots: Net veined, pinnate, palmate
Monocots Vs. Dicots

Arrangement of vascular bundles in stem.
Monocots: scattered vascular bundles

Dicots: ring of vascular bundles
List 6 traits of the parasitic reduction syndrome and why they occur.
1. Loss of leaves--take up E, photosynthesis not occurring
2. Small overall size-no need for large plant to hold leaves
3. Loss of roots-unnecessary, get E from host
4. Loss of chlorophyll-not doing photosynthesis
5. Loss of genes needed for photosynthesis-not doing photosynthesis
6. Higher substitution rate in genes that are not lost
How can monocots grow to be tree-like if they don't have wood?
Scattered vascular bundles of long, stiff cells support tall growth.
The species concept that requires knowledge about reproductive isolation between plants is the

a) morphological species concept
b) biological species concept
c) phylogenetic species concept
d) polymorphic species concept
e) typological species concept
b) biological species concept
Which of the following are all processes that may result in immediate speciation?

a) sympatry, polyploidy, accumulation of genetic differences
b) polyploidy, allopatry, selection for reproductive isolation
c) allopatry, selection for reproductive isolation, macromutation
d) selection for reproductive isolation, accumulation of genetic differences, allopatry
e) macromutation, chromosomal rearrangements, polyploidy
e) macromutation, chromosomal rearrangements, polyploidy
Plants that obtain part of their nutrition by photosynthesis, but still parasitize other plants are:

a) hemiparasites
b) commensals
c) autotrophs
d) heterotrophs
e) obligate parasites
a) hemiparasites
The number of sets of chromosomes in an organism is called its

a) karyotype
b) ploidy
c) chromosomal compatibility
d) chromosome base number
e) tetrasome
b) ploidy
Two groups of organisms that are reproductively incompatible, but morphologically similar are called:

a) sympatric species
b) allopatric species
c) sibling species
d) phylogenetic species
e) type species
c) sibling species
Describe the structure and action of the ‘pollen pump’ mechanism of pollen
presentation found in the Asteraceae.
The style typically is split at the tip and the stigmatic surface is along the inner wall of the split portion. When the flower matures the style forks are held together as the style emerges through the tube formed by the fused anthers, pushing the pollen
before it. This exposes the pollen to pollinators BEFORE the style splits open
exposing the stigmatic surface. The anthers release pollen before the stigma is
receptive (when pollen is released from a flower before the stigma is receptive, it is
called protandry).
Describe 5 vegetative traits exhibited by many epiphytic orchids that may function as adaptations to the epiphytic environment.
1. Sunken stomata
2. Thick waxy cuticle
3. Absorbent scales
4. Swollen stems
5. Aerial roots
Monocots all have vascular bundles in a ____ arrangement in their stems and _____ leaf venation.
scattered; parallel
The type of inflorescence found in Apiaceae is a/an ______. This aggregation of
many small flowers to form a single unit for attracting pollinators sometimes is called a/an _______.
umbel; pseudanthium
A plant that lacks chlorophyll and derives all of its food from another plant is a/an _________, whereas a plant that contains chlorophyll and is capable of photosynthesis, but still derives some of its nutrition from another plant is a/an ______.
holoparasite; hemiparasite
The inflorescence of skunk cabbage (and other members of family Araceae) is called a/an ______ and it is subtended by a structure called a/an ____
spadix; spathe
Two structures called ______ form the base of a spikelet in grasses, while the individual floret is enclosed by the _____ and the _____.
glumes; lemma; palea
In Orchidaceae and some Apocynaceae (a bonus family), all of the pollen grains from one or more stamens are aggregated together into a structure called a ______.
Introgression is...

a) the production of sterile hybrids between two species
b) a form of speciation involving doubling of chromosome number
c) reproductive isolation resulting from self-fertilization
d) the transmission of genes from one species into another through hybrid intermediates
e) the process by which reproductive incompatibility is increased when two species come back into contact soon after speciation has occurred
d) the transmission of genes from one species into another through hybrid intermediates
An organism with more than 2 sets of chromosomes is called a

a) karyotype
b) polyploid
c) diploid
d) hybrid
e) tetrasome
b) polyploid
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the parasitic reduction syndrome?

a) Small overall size of plant
b) Fast rate of gene/DNA evolution
c) Loss of chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments
d) Loss of roots
e) Reduction in floral display
e) Reduction in floral display
All of the following are characteristics of monocots EXCEPT:

a) parallel leaf venation
b) flower parts in multiples of 3
c) usually herbaceous (no true wood)
d) vascular cambium present
e) monocolpate pollen
d) vascular cambium present
The species concept stating that species are identified by derived traits shared by organisms, and which assumes that evidence of evolutionary novelty is sufficient to define speciation is:

a) morphological species concept
b) phylogenetic species concept
c) typological species concept
d) biological species concept
e) ontological species concept
b) phylogenetic species concept
Which of the following stamen arrangements characterizes most members of the Lamiaceae and Scrophulariaceae?

a) Tetradynamous stamens
b) Monadelphlous stamens
c) Monophyletic stamens
d) Didynamous stamens
e) Diadelphous stamens
d) Didynamous stamens
“Spurious endemism” can arise from which of the following processes/activities?

a) “Taxonomic inflation” resulting from splitting widespread species into many small species
b) “Release from selection,” in which a broader range of phenotypes survive to reproduce in the next
c) “Weed invasions” resulting in plants being distributed more widely than their natural range
d) “Local extinction” resulting from destructive actions of humans
e) “Punctuated equilibrium,” in which species appear to arise instantaneously in the fossil record
a) “Taxonomic inflation” resulting from splitting widespread species into many small species
An endemic species …

a) is widespread, but never very abundant
b) is always rare
c) is found all over the world and is very abundant
d) is highly invasive in disturbed habitats
e) is restricted to a specified geographic range
e) is restricted to a specified geographic range
The characteristic that provides the best means of distinguishing the Scrophulariaceae from the
Lamiaceae is

a) the shape of the stem in cross-section
b) floral symmetry
c) number of ovules in the ovary
d) the number and arrangement of stamens
e) leaf arrangement
c) number of ovules in the ovary
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of epiphytic orchids that is considered an
adaptation to their epiphytic habit?

a) Tiny seeds without endosperm
b) Thickened aerial roots covered by velamen
c) Sunken stomata
d) Thick waxy cuticle on leaves
e) Swollen stems called ‘pseudobulbs’
a) Tiny seeds without endosperm
Which of the following families DOES NOT have an inferior ovary:

a) Cyperaceae
b) Orchidaceae
c) Iridaceae
d) Caprifoliaceae
e) Asteraceae
a) Cyperaceae
Parasitic plants connect to the host plant by means of a structure called a:

a) root nodule
b) cyanobacterium
c) heterotroph
d) haustorium
e) endosymbiont
d) haustorium
Two species that occupy the same geographic range are called:

a) endemic species
b) allopatric species
c) sibling species
d) type species
e) sympatric species
e) sympatric species
Herb with long linear leaves, 2-ranked on the stem, which is hollow; inflorescence with two bracts at the base and two bracts at the base of each flower.
Herb with long, slender leaves in three ranks around the
stem; small, inconspicuous, radially-symmetric flowers
with 3 sepals, 3 petals, 6 stamens, and 3 fused carpels
Shrub with opposite leaves, bilaterally symmetric
lowers with didynamous stamens, and an ovary of two
fused carpels each section containing one ovule
Aquatic herb with long sword-like leaves and many
small male and female flowers organized into spikelike
inflorescence; fruits are 1-seeded follicles)