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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gibberellic Acid
seed germination, bud germination, stem elongation, flowering/fruiting
Apical dominance, phototropism, stem/cell elongation, gravitropism
promote cell division and lateral bud outgrowth, inhibit leaf senescence
Steroid hormone
Supports growth of xylem
Supports elongation of stems and pollen tubes
Inhibits leaf abscission
Abscisic acid
– Inhibits growth/stem elongation
– Supports seed dormancy
– Inhibits seed germination
–Closure of stomata in response to water
– Promotes fruit ripening
– Promotes leaf abscission
– Promotes senescence
– Inhibits stem elongation
– Inhibits gravitropism
Hormones that Respond to Tissue Damage and Trigger
Plant Defenses
• oligosaccharins
• jasmonates
• systemin
• salicylic acid
Phytochemical repel herbivores/microbes
– Oils from variety of herbs & spices repel insects
– Pine sap inhibits insect pests (e.g., bark beetles)
– Tannins & resins concentrate in heartwood of trees to prevent
insect & microbial infestation and rotting
– Many alkaloids (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, morphine, and cocaine)
repel herbivores & microbes
Barriers to Entry:
• Cuticle: matrix of cross-linked
lipid molecules impregnated with extremely
long-chained lipids
• Spines, thorns, & prickles
• Occurs in chloroplasts in green plant tissues
• Leaf parenchyma cells contain 40-50 chloroplasts
• Chlorophyll pigments in plants
• convert energy from sunlight to chemical energy in the form
of ATP & NADPH (an electron carrier)
• Carotenoids (carotene and xanthophylls): absorb
wavelengths of light that are not absorbed by chlorophyll and
extend the range of wavelengths that can drive photosynthesis
6CO2 + 12H2O + light energy =>
C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 + 6H2
Gas exchange
between atmosphere and plant via
stomata in leaves
Stoma (stomata plural): guard cells & pores
Guard cells: pair of bean-shaped cells
Pore: opening between guard cells
Gas exchange between atmosphere & plant
via stomata in leaves
• O2 produced by plant released out of stomata pores into
atmosphere where it is available for humans & animals to
• H2O released out of the pores via evapo-transpiration
• in some species (e.g., coastal redwoods & Douglas Firs) during
high fog conditions, H2O can be absorbed from the air into the
leaf through the stomata pores to provide H2O for the plant
• During photosynthesis when CO2 levels within leaf fall below
optimal levels, the stomata open & CO2 diffuses in from
Sugar produced by photosynthetic organisms => fuels cellular respiration and growth of plant
• sugars are typically stored in the form of starch (long
chains of glucose molecules)
• transported in the form of the disaccharide, sucrose
(glucose attached to fructose) or monosaccharide
(glucose or fructose)
Plant Pigments & Photosynthesis
–Carotenes (e.g., beta-carotene in carrots; lycopene in tomatoes)
–Xanthophylls (e.g, zeaxanthin which gives corn yellow color)
Carotenoids in chloroplasts
–extend range of wavelengths that drive photosynthesis
–Protect chlorophyll by acting as anti-oxidant and destroy free radicals that damage the chlorophyll molecules beta-carotene also works a beneficial antioxidant
in humans)
During most of year the carotenoids are not visible in the leaves because the
chlorophyll pigments cover them up. In fall, as the deciduous leaves are
beginning to die, chlorophyll degenerates and the red, orange, and yellow
carotenoids become visible