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73 Cards in this Set

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Useful field characteristics for Betulaceae.
trees or shrubs
leaves simple, alternate Doubly serrate
monoecious plants
pistillate and staminate flowers in separate catkins
ovary inferior
nut, samara
Characteristics of Betulaceae
1) trees or shrubs - mostly north temperate
2) Leaves simple, alternate, usually with doubly serrate margins
3) Flowers unisexual; plants monoecious
- flowers subtended by bracts; sometimes 2 or more
- flowers of both sexes usually in catkins (sometimes males only- Corylus)
- tepals 1-4, sometimes lacking and always very reduced
- stamens 1-4; carpels 2(-3) fused
- ovary inferior
4) fruit: nut (animal dispersed) or samara (wind dispersed)
nut: hard, dry, indehiscent, usually with a single seed
Characteristics of Fagaceae
1) trees or shrubs - mostly northern hemisphere, temperate to subtropical
2) leaves simple, alternate
3) Flowers unisexual; plants monoecious
- tepals usually 6; always very reduced
- male flowers in catkins; 4-40 stamens per flower
- female flowers solitary or clustered in leaf axils; carpels 3-6, connate; surrounded by
an involucre of several overlapping bracts
- ovary inferior - of 3 fused carpels, each with 2 ovules; all but one ovule aborts
4) Fruit: nut (animal dispersed)
Useful field characteristics of Fagaceae
trees or shrubs
leaves simple, alternate
monoecious plants
pistillate flowers in leaf axils
staminate flowers in catkins
ovary inferior
nut with involucre of bracts
Betulaceae
Male and female catkins
Alnus
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Betulaceae
Female flowers develop into cone.
Alnus
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Betulaceae
Male Alnus flowers
Alnus
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Betulaceae
Betula leaves - doubly serrate
Betula
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Betulaceae
Betula samara - winged fruit
Betula
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Fagaceae
Quercus catkins
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Fagaceae
Quercus female flowers
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Fagaceae
Quercus involucre
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Fagaceae
Quercus male flowers
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Characteristics of Salicaceae
1) shrubs and trees
Vegetative reproduction by root sprouts (e.g., aspen groves) or rooting of branches
(e.g.,willows along streams) common. The largest single living ‘organism’ is an
aspen grove in Utah
2) lvs simple
3) Dioecious - separate male and female plants
3) Flowers in catkins (both male and female) – pussy willows
- fls borne in axil of hairy bracts on catkin axis
- no perianth (sepals and petals)
- ovary superior, with 2-4 fused carpels with many ovules (different from oaks and
birches, which are inferior and with 1-few ovules)
4) seeds hairy - hence “cottonwood”
Floral formulae: female: * 0, 0, 0, 2-4 capsule [carpels fused]
male: * 0, 0, 2-∞, O
Useful field characteristics of Saliceae
trees or shrubs
dioecious plants
pistillate and staminate flowers in separate catkins
seeds numerous and comose (hairy)
Characteristics of Caryophyllaceae.
1) Repeat after me: opposite leaves, swollen nodes
2) herbaceous
3) floral parts in 5s petals often with well developed claw (forming tube) and blade
- ovary of 2-5 carpels
- placentation usually free-central (basal, axile)
4) NO BETALAINS
Useful field characteristics of Caryophyllaceae
herbs
leaves simple, opposite
swollen nodes
petals entire to deeply lobed, often differentiated into a claw and a limb
floral parts in 5's
placentation often freecentral
Characteristics of Cactaceae
1) habit: succulent stems, variously shaped, sometimes flattened
- Primitive cacti are vines or shrubs and are not succulent.
2) leaves are ephemeral or reduced
axillary buds, called Areoles, with leaves in the form of spines: Glochidia.
3) Flowers exhibit a secondary increase in the number of parts
- many tepals usually united at the base into a hypanthium
- many stamens arising from the hypanthium
- inferior ovary of 3-∞ fused carpels; placentation parietal
Useful field characteristics of cactaceae
stem succulents
areoles
flowers showy
floral parts numerous
ovary inferior
placentation usually parietal
Characteristics of Portulaceae.
1) herbs, plants often somewhat succulent
2) lvs simple, alternate or opposite, often fleshy (almost succulent)
3) flowers
- Characteristic paired bracts, usually called sepals, beneath each flower
- petals (really tepals, because ‘sepals’ are really bracts) - 5 or more
- Lewisia is an important exception here in PNW with many (2-9) sepaloid bracts and
many tepals.
BETALAINS
Useful field characteristics of Portulaceae
usually herbs
2 to several sepals
plants often fleshy
leaves simple, opposite or alternate
basal placentation
Characteristics of Polygonaceae
1) Herbaceous or woody (mostly in the tropics)
2) lvs simple alternate; with sheathing stipules (derived from the stipules) called an
Ocrea
3) Flowers 3-parted
- tepals usually 6 (sometimes 5)
- stamens 6-9
4) NO BETALAINS
Useful field characteristics of Polygonaceae
leaves alternate, with sheathing stipules (ocreas)
one floral envelope
achene, often winged
Salicaceae
Populars or cottonwood
Populus trichocarpa
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Salicaceae
Fruit is capsule with hairy seeds
Salix
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Characteristics of Fabaceae/Legumonoceae
trees, shrubs or herbs
leaves often compound
leaflets with entire margins
stamens numerous to 10, diadelphous in papilionaceous flowers
carpel 1 (per flower)
legume or loment
Fabaceae
Many stamens, 1 carpel. Mimosoideae subfamily
Albizzia
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Fabaceae
Caesalpinoid "flag" flower with five petals - Flag, two wings, and not fused keel, 10 stamens, not fused.
Cassia
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Fabaceae
Caesalpinoid "flag" flower with five petals - Flag, two wings, and not fused keel, 10 stamens, not fused.
Cercis
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Fabaceae
Papilionoid "flag" flower with five petals, flag, 2 wings and 2 fused keels, 10 stamen, 9 fused together.
Lathyrus
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Fabaceae
Papilionoid "flag" flower with five petals, flag, 2 wings and 2 fused keels, 10 stamen, 9 fused together
Lathyrus
Identify the family and name the key characteristics. Identify the genus and species if known.
Fabaceae
Compound leaves, entire margins, papilionoid flowers
Lupinus
Identify the family and name the key characteristics. Identify the genus and species if known.
Fabaceae
Legume fruit - characteristic of all in the family.
Lupinus
Identify family and name key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Useful field characteristics of Violaceae.
usually herbs
flowers zygomorphic
corolla polypetalous, spurred
nectar guides
stamens connivent
Useful field characteristics of Asteraceae
head or capitulum, surrounded by phyllaries
disk or disk and ray or ligulate flowers
pappus
corolla sympetalous
anthers syngenesious (connate)
ovary inferior
achene (cypsela)
Characteristics of Asteraceae
1) all life forms, but mostly herbs
2) lvs usually simple, without stipules; alt or opp
3) Inflorescence a capitulum or ‘head’, surrounded by involucral bracts (pseudanthium)
The alternate name for this family, Compositae, recognizes the ‘composite’ nature of
the ‘flowers’; each unit made up of many small flowers
4) flowers borne on a flat to conical receptacle; this often with scales or chaff between the
flowers
5) Flowers
- two kinds: {some have only one or the other, but most have both}
Ray florets - usually female, zygomorphic; also called ligulate (‘strap-like’)
Disk florets - usually hermaphrodite, actinomorphic
- calyx reduced to bristles or scales, called pappus; sometimes absent
- anthers fused at margins, synantherous androecium
- ovary inferior, composed of 2 fused carpels each with one ovule, one ovule aborts,
leaving a single-seeded achene (‘cypsela’ - special word for fruit of Asteraceae)
Characteristics of Apiaceae
Carrot or parsley family (450 gen/3500 spp)
also called Umbelliferae – ‘the umbels’
NOTE: the textbook includes the related family Araliaceae, not included here.
1) herbs
2) lvs. alternate, simple or compound; with sheathing leaf bases
3) Typical inflorescence – Umbel – many flowers emerging from one point subtended by
bracts
4) Flowers
- 5-parted
- polypetalous
- 2 fused carpels, each with one ovule, split apart at maturity, schizocarp
- ovary inferior
Characteristics of Apiaceae
Apiaceae Carrot or parsley family (450 gen/3500 spp)
also called Umbelliferae – ‘the umbels’
NOTE: the textbook includes the related family Araliaceae, not included here.
1) herbs
2) lvs. alternate, simple or compound; with sheathing leaf bases
3) Typical inflorescence – Umbel – many flowers emerging from one point subtended by
bracts
4) Flowers
- 5-parted
- polypetalous
- 2 fused carpels, each with one ovule, split apart at maturity, schizocarp
- ovary inferior
Useful field characteristics of Apiaceae
mostly perennial herbs
leaves compound, dissected, with sheathing base
tissues containing secretory canals
umbels
carpels 2, connate
ovary inferior
schizocarp
Apiaceae
Simple umbel, polypetalous, dissected leaves
Aegopodium
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify the genus and species if known.
Apiaceae
Compound umbel, polypetalous, sheathing leaf base, inferior ovary.
Daucus carota
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known
Apiaceae
Sheathing leaf base
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known
Characteristics of caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae Honeysuckle family (36 gen/810 spp) – “Cap” in MAD Cap Horse
1) mostly woody (some derived groups are herbaceous; eg, Valerianaceae and
Dipsacaceae)
2) lvs opposite; usually simple, with no stipules
3) Flowers
- zygomorphic (sometimes weakly so), sometimes bilabiate with 4 upper lobes/1
lower lobe (especially in Lonicera the honeysuckles)
- 2-5 fused carpels, typically with one ovule per carpel and often with one or more
ovules aborted; sometimes reduced to a single seeded fruit
- ovary inferior
Floral formula: X(*) 5, 5, 4-5, 2-5 berry, capsule, drupe, achene [carpels fused; ovary
inferior]
NOT monophyletic in traditional circumscription. Paraphyletic by exclusion of
Adoxaceae, Valerianaceae, Dipsacaceae {together these make up the Dipsacales}
Useful field characteristics of caprifoliaceae
herbs, shrubs, small trees, or lianas
leaves opposite, simple
flowers zygomorphic
petals 5, connate with 2 upper and 3 lower lobes, or 4 upper and 1 lower lobe; sometimes spurred
2-5 fused carpels
ovary inferior; style elongate, stigma capitate
nectar producing glandular hairs on inner surface of corolla tube
berry, capsule, or drupe
Caprifoliaceae.
Zygomorphic gamapet, inferior ovary, opposite leaves.
Lonicera
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Caprifoliaceae
Weakly zygomorphic gamopet flowers with inferior ovary, opposite leaves.
Linnaea
Identify the family and key characteristics. Identify the species if known
Caprifoliaceae
Weakly zygomorphic gamapet, inferior ovary, opposite leaves.
Viburnum
Identify the family and key characteristics. Identify the species if known
Characteristics of Scrophulariaceae.
Scrophulariaceae figwort family (269 gen/5100 spp, but….)
1) herbs or shrubs (ours usually herbs) (rarely with square stems, including
Scrophularia!)
2) leaves usually alternate (some opposite); no stipules
3) many parasitic species – often segregated into family Orobanchaceae
- hemiparasites - still capable of photosynthesis
- holoparasites - without chlorophyll and completely dependent on their host
4) Flowers
- zygomorphic; often bilabiate
- didynamous stamens (2-long; 2-short); occasionally reduced to 2
- fruit a many-seeded capsule (occasionally a berry)
Useful field characteristics of scrophulariaceae
usually herbs
flowers zygomorphic
corolla sympetalous, bilabiate
didynamous stamens usually present
ovary superior; carpels 2, fused; ovules numerous
capsule or berry
Schrophulariaceae
2 stamens (reduced from 4)
Veronica
Identify the family and key characteristics. Identify the genus and species if known
Scrophulariaceae
Raceme, 5 bilabiate flower
Digitalis
Identify the family and key characteristics. Identify the genus and species if known.
Schropularaceae
5 petal bilabiate flowers
Mimulus
Identify the family and key characteristics. Identify the genus if known.
Scrophulariaceae
Zygomorhpic bilabiate flowers
Penstemon
Identify the family and key characteristics
Violaceae 5 sepals and petals, bottom petal forming a nectary spur. Bottom two stamen nestled in spur, 3 fused carpels
Identify the family and key characteristics
Violaceae 5 petals, chordate leaf bases.
Identify the family and key characteristics. Identify the genus and species if known.
Violaceae Nectar spur and 2 stamens forming the nectary. Conniviant stamens.
Identify the family and key characteristics. Identify the genus and species if known.
Violaceae 3 fused carpels, parietal placentation
Identify the family and key characteristics. Identify the genus and species if known.
Useful field characteristics of Violaceae
usually herbs flowers zygomorphic corolla polypetalous (5), spurred nectar guides stamens connivent
Characteristics of Violaceae
1) mostly tropical trees(!); herbs in temperate zone 2) lvs simple (often cordate at base in violets) 3) Flowers zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetric) - petals 5, the lower one forming a ‘spur’ - stamens five, the lower two forming a nectary (held within the petal spur) - ovary superior; placentation parietal; 3-5 fused carpels
Asteraceae Flowers in head, this with purple ray and yellow disc flowers, involucre, alternate leaves
Identify the family and key characteristics. Name the genus and species if known.
Asteraceae Flowers in heads, ray and disk flowers, capitulum
Identify the family and key characteristics. Name the genus and species if known.
Characteristics of Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae (Labiatae) - Mint family (258 gen/6970 spp)
1) woody/herbaceous
2) often aromatic – the large subfamily Nepetoideae characterized by aromatic oils
instead of iridoids. These include many culinary herbs and ingredients in perfumes,
including sage, rosemary, thyme, basil, lavender, etc.
3) stems often square (traditional herbaceous mints)
4) leaves usually opposite and decussate; sometimes whorled; no stipules
5) Flowers
- zygomorphic; bilabiate (usually 2 upper lobes/3 lower lobes)
- stamens and stigma usually enclosed in upper lip of corolla
- stamens 2 or 4; often didynamous (2 uneven pairs)
- gynoecium 2 carpels, each with 2 ovules and a false septum between ovules of each
carpel; often with a gynobasic style arising from between 4 mericarps
- fruit: schizocarp forming 4 nutlets (or a 1-4 seeded drupe)
Floral formula: X 5, 5, 2 or 4, 2 nutlets or drupe [carpels fused]
Useful field characteristics of lamiaceae
aromatic herbs
square stems
leaves opposite or whorled
flowers zygomorphic
corolla sympetalous, bilabiate
didynamous stamens
gynobasic style (usually)
ovary superior; carpels 2, fused; 2 ovules/carpel
4 nutlets (usually)
Characteristics of Polemoniceae
1) herbaceous, sometime slightly woody at base (as in some species of Phlox)
2) lvs. simple usually alternate, sometimes opposite
3) flower morphology seems typical of traditional Asteridae s.s., but belongs here with
other families traditionally placed in Dilleniidae
- 1 whorl of stamens alternate with corolla lobes and adnate to corolla
(this is probably from a loss of one whorl of stamens, but the similarity to core
Asterids, such as Solanaceae, led to the classification of Polemoniaceae in
Asteridae when its more closely related families with two whorls of stamens were
placed in Dilleniidae)
- 3 fused carpels - note 3-forked style; this is very unusual in traditional Asteridae, but
this character is fairly common in families in this part of Asteridae s.l. (eg,
Primulaceae, the primroses)
- stamens unequally inserted on corolla tube
Floral formula: * 5, 5, 5, 3 capsule[carpels fused]
Useful field characteristics of Polemoniceae
usually herbs
flowers actinomorphic
corolla sympetalous, convolute in bud
unequal insertion of stamens on corolla
carpels 3, connate
stigmas separate (3)
ovary superior
Synapomorphies of Asterideae
1) Iridoid compounds – secondary chemical compounds thought to be plant defenses
2) Unitegmic ovules – ovules covered by a single integument (integument is the outer
covering of the ovule, becomes seed coat)
3) Tenuinucellate ovules – thin nucellus in ovule (nucellus is the tissue beneath the
integument that surrounds the megagametophyte)
Core Asteridid characteristics
- gamopetalous corollas
- 5-parted flowers
- a single whorl of stamens that alternate with the petal lobes
- epipetalous stamens
- 2 fused carpels
Characteristics of Ericaceae
1) mostly trees and shrubs, some herbs
2) lvs simple often thick and leathery
3) plants often mycotrophic (nutritionally dependent on fungi underground, which, in
turn are dependent on other green plants); some are totally without the ability to
photosynthesize. Pine drops, Indian pipe, etc.
4) Flowers
- actinomorphic (sometimes zygomorphic as in Rhododendron)
- 5- parted perianth, usually connate - flowers often urn-shaped
- 10 stamens (sometimes 5 in Rhododendron); anthers poricidal with terminal pores;
attached to nectary disk (sometimes epipetalous)
- 3-5 fused carpels; fruit a berry or capsule
Floral formula: *(X) 5, 5, (5) 10, 3-5 berry, capsule [carpels fused]
ovary usually superior, but sometimes inferior
Useful field characteristics of Ericaceae
1) mostly trees and shrubs, some herbs
2) lvs simple often thick and leathery
3) plants often mycotrophic (nutritionally dependent on fungi underground, which, in
turn are dependent on other green plants); some are totally without the ability to
photosynthesize. Pine drops, Indian pipe, etc.
4) Flowers
- actinomorphic (sometimes zygomorphic as in Rhododendron)
- 5- parted perianth, usually connate - flowers often urn-shaped
- 10 stamens (sometimes 5 in Rhododendron); anthers poricidal with terminal pores;
attached to nectary disk (sometimes epipetalous)
- 3-5 fused carpels; fruit a berry or capsule
Floral formula: *(X) 5, 5, (5) 10, 3-5 berry, capsule [carpels fused]
ovary usually superior, but sometimes inferior
Characteristics of Boraginaceae
- Includes former Hydrophyllaceae
1) mostly herbs (all of ours); some shrubs and trees, mostly in tropics
2) lvs simple (sometimes deeply divided, eg, in Hydrophyllum), alternate, commonly
with stiff ‘hispid’ hairs - Borago leaves demo
3) Flowers
- actinomorphic
- inflorescence a ‘scorpioid’ or ‘helicoid’ cyme (see below and overhead)
- corolla often with a ‘corona’ of infolded appendages at throat of tube
- stamens either exserted and spreading (former Hydrophyllaceae) or included
- carpels 2, superior, exhibiting two distinct morphologies:
1) each with many ovules (formerly Hydrophyllaceae).
2) each containing 2 ovules and dividing by infolding of the ovary wall forming a
false septum between each ovule (Boraginaceae s.s.). In our species this
results in four separate ‘nutlets’ when mature (subfamily Boraginoideae,
only).
Useful field characteristics of Boraginaceae
herbs
plants often hairy
leaves alternate
scorpioid or helicoid cymes
flowers actinomorphic
corolla sympetalous
style gynobasic OR terminal and bifid
if style terminal and bifid, then stamens usually exserted
ovary superior, 4-lobed (when gynobasic) OR unilocular
4 nutlets (when gynobasic) OR capsule
Characteristics of Solanaceae
Potato or Nightshade family (150 gen/3000 spp)
This is one of the most important food plant families in the world, probably second only
to the grass family. Includes potato, tomato, eggplant, peppers, tomatillo, naranjillo,
tree tomato, and other crops locally grown in Latin America.
1) mostly herbs (some vines or woody plants)
2) lvs alternate, simple, often lobed
3) presence of alkaloids in various forms gives these plants various uses, including:
culinary (capsaicin in chilis)
medicinal (atropine in belladona)
narcotic (nicotine in tobacco)
hallucinogenic (various alkaloids in Datura - jimson weed)
4) Flowers - these flowers are often the most ‘generic’ Asteridae flowers
- actinomorphic (some zygomorphic)
- anthers not exserted, or if so, then connivent (held together) as in Solanum
- style capitate (not divided)
- carpels 2, fused, usually with many ovules.; fruit a berry or capsule
Floral formula: *(X) 5, 5, (2, 4)5, 2 berry, capsule [carpels fused]
examples of berry fruits: tomato, eggplant, chili pepper, and bell pepper
Useful field characteristics of Solanaceae
usually herbs, shrubs, or vines
plants often densely pubescent
leaves simple, alternate, commonly lobed
flowers actinomorphic, sympetalous
2 carpels, capitate stigma
ovary superior