Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/71

Click to flip

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Papavaraceae
4 petals and many stamen
Chelodonium
Identify the family and name the key characteristics
Identify the genus and species if known
Papavaraceae
Wrinkled petals, many stamen, and compound pistil
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Papavaraceae
Poricidal capsule
Papaver
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Papavaraceae
Dissected leaves, many stamen, 4 petals
Stylophorum
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Papavaraceae
Fused carpel and parietal placentation.
Stylophorum
Identify the family and the key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Papavaraceae
Zygomorphic symetry and necter spur.
Corydalis
Identify the family and the key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Papavaraceae
Outer petals with nectur spurs and inner petals enclosing stigma
Dicentra
Identify the family and the key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Papavaraceae
Outer petals nectar spurs and inner petals enclosing stigma
Identify the family and the key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
List useful field characteristics of Papavaraceae
- herbs with milky sap (can be colored)
- leaves simple often lobed or dissected
- flowers actinomorphic (Papaveroideae) or zygomorphic (Fumarioideae)
- 2 deciduous sepals, 4 petals often wrinkled
- Stamens numerous (Papaveroideae) OR 6 and diadelphous (Fumarioideae)
- Fruit a capsule
Name the three subfamilies of Papavaraceae
Papavaroideae
Fumarioideae
Pteridophylliodeae
Magnoliaceae.
Showy flower. Many parts spirally arranged on elongate receptacle.
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Magnoliaceae
Fruit developing from on carpel
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Magnoliaceae
Many laminar stamens.
Liriodendron - tulip tree
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Magnoliaceae
Spiral arrangement, large showy flowers.
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Magnoliaceae
Large. Simpe leaves, entire margins, spiral arrangement, many simple pistals
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Name key field characteristics of Magnoliaceae
Magnoliaceae
trees & shrubs
flowers large and showy
floral parts numerous, separate, spirally arranged
elongate receptacle
List key field characteristics for ranunculaceae
usually herbs
leaves simple and deeply lobed or compound
stamens usually many
apocarpous gynoecium (2 to many)
superior ovary
Sepals and Petals 3+, petals can be absent
Ranunuculaceae
Many stamens, highly divided leaves
Aconitum
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Ranunculaceae
Many stamens, no petals, divided leaves
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Ranunculuaceae
Aquigelia
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Ranunculaceae
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Ranunculaceae
Many stamens multiple simple pistals
Caltha
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Ranunculaceae
Fruit follicle
Caltha
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Ranunculacea

Cultha
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Ranunculaceae
Many stamens and pistals
Helleborus
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Ranunculaceae

Trollius
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Ranunuculus

Clematis
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Araceae.
Colorful spathe
Spadix with flowers
Lysichiton
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Araceae
Fruit on end of spadix

Dracunulus
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Araceae
Spadix inside Spathe. Infloursence at the bottom
Arum
Identify the family and key characteristics.
Identify the genus and species if known.
Characteristics of Typhaceae
1) aquatic herbs
2) lvs simple, alternate, 2-ranked, linear
3) inflorescence a dense spike of male flowers at tip of shoot and female flowers at base
of shoot - monoecious
4) flowers:
- perianth of bract-like tepals or bristles
- 1-8 stamens
- 3 fused carpels, one ovule per carpel, and 2 carpels aborting --> single-seeded
follicle or drupe
- superior ovary
Typhaceae
Seperate male and female flowers, monecious, reduced bract like tepals. 3 connate carpels.
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genes and species if known.
Typhaceae
Developed fruit - drupe with dry spony flesh
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Typhaceae
Separate male and female flowers, monecious
Tyhpha
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Typhaceae
Fruit falling apart as winter progresses.
Typha
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Characteristic of Juncaceae
1) herbs (aquatic or terrestrial)
2) stems typically round and solid
3) lvs basal, 3-ranked, leaf sheaths open or closed
4) flowers
- actinomorphic
- 3-parted (wind pollinated, but look just like little lily flowers)
-ovary of 3 fused carpels, usually with many ovules, superior
Useful field characteristics of Juncaceae
herbs with round, usually solid stems
leaves basal, 3ranked, with open or closed sheaths
tepals 6
stamens 3 or 6; carpels 3, connate
capsule
Juncaceae
Round solid stems, highly branched flowers.
Juncus
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Juncacea.
Branched inflorescence, 3-6 tepals, 3-6 stamen and 3 fused carpels
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Juncaceae
6 tepals, 3 fused carpels, superior ovary
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Characteristics of Cyperaceae
1) herbs (many aquatic, but terrestrial, too)
2) stems triangular, solid or hollow
3) lvs 3-ranked; sheath closed
- ligule - flap of tissue at junction of blade and sheath, present only in Carex
4) Inflorescence a spikelet of many small flowers (found also in grasses - Poaceae)
Each flower subtended by a bract and one empty bract at base of spikelet
5) Flowers
- bisexual or unisexual (then usually
monoecious)
- technically actinomorphic
- perianth absent or reduced to hairs or small
bracts
- usually 3 stamens; sometimes only 1 or 2
- ovary of 2-3 fused carpels, but always reduced
to contain a single ovule
- fruit an achene
- ovary surrounded by a structure called a perigynium in Carex and related genera
Field characteristics of Cyperaceae
herbs
stems typically triangular,sometimes round
leaves basal or cauline, 3-ranked, with closed sheaths
inflorescence a spikelet
perianth of bristles or absent
achene
Cyperaceae
Flowers born on spiklets, monecious in this case, subtend by bracts, one bracts at base of spiklet.
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Cyperaceae
3 ranked leaves.
Carex
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Cyperaceae
Monecious. Spiklets.
Carex
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Cyperaceae
Achene fruits
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Characteristics of Poaceae
herbs, though bamboo achieves tree-like proportions
2) stems circular and usually hollow but sometimes solid
3) lvs 2-ranked; leaf sheaths open (overlapping), ligule present at junction of sheath and
blade
4) growth by intercalary meristem, which is at nodes rather than at tip of stem. This
allows regeneration when tip is cut, as in grazing or mowing of prairies/lawns.
Hypotheses of coevolution of grazers and grassland
5) Inflorescence a spikelet of many small flowers (as in sedges)
- Sometimes only one floret per spikelet
- Each spikelet subtended by two empty bracts called glumes
- Each individual flower (floret) enclosed by two bracts:
- lemma - bract at base of individual floret
- palea - bract that faces the lemma thereby
enclosing the floret
6) Flowers (individual flowers called florets)
- technically zygomorphic
- lodicules - very reduced perianth; little more
than swollen bit of tissue
- ovary of 2-3 fused carpels, but reduced to a
single locule with one ovule
- superior ovary
Key field characteristics of Poaceae
herbs with round, usually hollow stems
leaves basal or cauline, 2ranked, usually with open sheaths
ligule between leaf sheath and leaf blade
inflorescence a spikelet with 1 to many florets
glumes, lemmas, paleas, lodicules
caryopsis (grain)
Poaceae
Circular stems, 2 ranked, spiklets of flowers, grow from intercalcy meristem.
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Poaceae
Each spiklet subtend by single bract, and each floret surrounded by two bracts or glumes - the lemma and palea.
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Poaceae
Bract, glumes, 1-6 stamen, 2-3 fused carpels plumose stigma. Absent perianth
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Compare rushes, sedges, and grasses
see above
Characteristics of Araceae
2) lvs simple or compound; broad and petiolate (‘pseudo-laminae’ not same as dicot
blade
3) calcium oxalate crystals usually present
4) Inflorescence consisting of
- spathe - bract (often colorful) surrounding the flowers
- spadix - axis on which the flowers are borne
- often with a sterile extension above called an ‘appendix’
5) Flowers
- unisexual (sometimes bisexual)
- monoecious or dioecious; if monoecious, male fls above, female fls below
- tepals 4-6, or 0,scale-like, or fused in a cup, inconspicuous
- superior or inferior ovary
- fetid odor (stinks!)
Useful field characteristics of araceae
mostly terrestrial herbs
watery or milky sap
calcium oxalate crystals
spathe and spadix
flowers often with fetid odor
Characteristics of Liliaceae
1) herbs
2) stems often modified as underground rhizomes, corms, or bulbs
3) Flowers
- 3-parted all the way (2 whorls of stamens)
- distinct sepals and petals or just tepals
- ovary superior or inferior - this is sometimes used to segregate some families
Useful field characteristics of Liliaceae
usually herbs, often scapose
stems often modified as rhizomes, bulbs or corms
flowers actinomorphic
perianth usually undifferentiated
6 tepals (or 3 sepals and 3 petals), 6 stamens, 3 carpels
ovary superior or inferior
capsule or berry
Liliaceae
6 tepals and 6 stamen, 3 fused carpels (3 parted).
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known
Liliaceae
Superior ovary, 3 parted.
Lilium
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Liliaceae
3 sepals, 3 petals, 6 stamen
Trillium.
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known
Characteristics of the Iridaceae
1) herbs, aquatic or terrestrial
2) underground stems as rhizomes, bulbs or corms
3) lvs mostly basal and linear, 2-ranked and ‘equitant’ (overlapping in 2 ranks)
4) inflorescence often subtended by a spathe-like bract
5) Flowers
- actinomorphic or zygomorphic
- distinct sepals and petals or just tepals – 6 total
- stamens 3
- ovary of 3 fused carpels, inferior; fruit a capsule
- 3 petaloid styles in Iris winged and showy; flap of tissue covers the stigmatic surface,
so that an insect backing out of the flower will not transfer pollen from the stamen to
its own stigma. In Iris,the stamens are in line with the
petaloid style.
Useful field characteristics of the Iridaceae
herbs
flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic
perianth undifferentiated or differentiated
6 tepals (or 3 sepals and 3 petals), 3 stamens, 3 carpels
styles sometimes winged and petaloid
ovary inferior
capsule
Iridaceae
6Tepal, 3 stamen, 3 fused carpels, stamen petaloid.
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Iridaceae
Petaloid stamen
Iris
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Iridaceae
Capsule fruit
Iris
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Iridaceae
6 tepals, 3 stamen, 3 fused carpels
Sisyrinchium
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Characteristics of Orchidaceae
1) herbs, terrestrial or epiphytic
Epiphytic plants - plants that are supported by some structure other than their own stem.
(usually other plants)
- very common in the tropical wet forests
- epiphytic habitat often imposes serious drought conditions on plants
- modifications for drought resistance:
- sunken stomata
- thick waxy cuticle
- absorbent scales OR swollen stems or aerial roots for water retention
2) swollen stems - ‘pseudobulbs’
3) thickened aerial roots covered with a multiple-layered epidermis called a ‘velamen’
4) Flowers
- bracteate
- often resupinate (twisted 180o in development)
- one petal modified as a ‘labellum’ (lower lip)
- pollen aggregated into pollinia (1 or 2 stamens)
- style, stigma, and stamens fused to form the column
- The anther forms the tip of the column, with the stigmatic surface lower down
5) seeds minute, without endosperm, require a fungal relationship to germinate
successfully
Useful field characteristics of orchidaceae
terrestrial or epiphytic herbs
strongly mycotrophic
flowers zygomorphic
3 sepals, 3 petals, 12 stamens, 3 carpels
labellum, column, pollinia
ovary inferior
capsule
Orchidaceae
Enlarged lower petal - labellum.
Cypripedium
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Orchidaceae
Zygomorphic, 3 sepals and 3 petals, 12 stamens.
Calypso
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Orchidaceae.
Large inferior ovary
Coralorhiza
Identify species and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.
Orchidaceae
Capsule fruit with minute seeds.
Identify family and key characteristics. Identify genus and species if known.