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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the kingdom name for plants?
Approximately how many species compose the plant kingdom?
290,000 species
What phyla is the most recent common ancestor of land plants?
Charophyta (Charophyceans; Green Algae)
What characteristics are used as evidence for the relationship of plants and its most recent common ancestor?
Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis
Peroxisome enzymes
Structure of flagellated sperm
Formation of a phragmoplast
Molecular Sequence Data
Rosette Cellulose-Synthesising Complexes
Rose-shaped arrays of proteins in the plasma membrane of plants/charophyceans that synthesize cellulose microfibrils of the cell wall
Peroxisome Enzymes
Peroxisomes of plants/charophcyeans contain enzymes that minimize loss of organic products due to photorespiration
Structure of Flagellated Sperm
Structure of plant flagellated sperm resembles that of charophycean spern
Alignment of cytosekeletal elements and Golgi-derived vesicles acros midline of a dividing cell
What characteristics distinguish land plants from their most recent common ancestor?
Apical Meristems
Alternaton of Generations
Walled Spores Produced in Sporangia
Multicellular Gametangia
Multicellular Dependent Embryos
Apical Meristems
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and the buds of shoots; supplies cells for plant to grow
Alternation of Generation
Life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form (sporophyte) and a multicellular haploid form (gametophyte)
Production of Spores
Sporangia produce spores from sporocytes (diploid cells) via meiosis
Structure in which gametes are produced; plants have mutlicellular archegonia (female) and antheridia (male)
Multicellular, Dependent Embryos
Develop from zygotes retained in female parent tissues, which provide nutrients; Placental trancfer cells enhance transfer (analagous to placenta) land plants known as "embryophytes"
What is the most diverse group of plants today?
When did land plants originate on earth?
About 500 million years ago
Does this kindgom form a monophyletic group? Why or why not?
Yes, kingdom Plantae forms a monophyletic group; it includes a common ancestor and all of its decended relatives
Define "Viridiplantae"
A taxonomic group including plants and close protist ancestors, mainly algae; under debate as to whether or not it should be reclassified as a kingdom
List the major challenges lplants faced in moving from water onto land, and the innovations they developed to overcome them
Support: Thicker cell walls, vascular tissue
Uptake and Transport of Nutrients; Roots and Shoots
Dessication; Cuticle and Stomata
Protection from UV Light: Cuticle
Obtaining Light: Leaves
New Predation: Toxins
Reproductive measures lacking water: Reduction of the gametophyte
List all the phyla within kingdom Plantae, in order of their evolution
Hepatophyta: Liverworts
Anthocerophyta: Hornworts
Bryophyta: Mosses
Lycophyta: Lycopods
Pterophyta: Wisk ferns, horse tails, ferns
Gnetophyta: Gnetophytes
Cycadophyta: Cycads
Ginkgophyta: Ginkgos
Coniferophyta: Conifers
Anthrophyta: Angiosperms
Describe where each of the major innovations in adaption of life on land occured
Cuticle: Before Hepatophyta
Stomata: Between Hepatophyta and Anthocertophyta
Vascular Tissue: Between Bryophyta and Lycophyta
Roots: Between Bryophta and Lycophyta
Reduced Gametophye: Between Bryophyta and Lycophyta
Seeds: Between Pterophyta and the Gymnosperm clade
Flowers: Between the Gymnosperm clade and Anthrophyta