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23 Cards in this Set

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What are the two sieve elements?
Sieve tube members and sieve cell
What are some characteristics of the sieve elements?
They must be alive
They are parenchyma
They have only primary walls
How are sieve pores made?
These are merely the enlargement of plasmodesmata
What are sieve areas?
These are clusters of sieve pores
What is the nurse cell for sieve tubes and sieve cells?
Sieve cells-albumionous
STM- Companion cells
What sieve element is in angiosperms and what is in nonangiosperms?
Angiosperms-STM
Nonangiosperms- SC
Where are the dictyosomes, mitochondira and organelles held in sieve elements?
In the ectoplasm
What two substances help if plant is to rupture?
Callose and P-Protein
What type of growth is in the apical meristem?
Localized growth (arimetric growth)
What are some of the consequences of having arithmetic growth?
Chances for alot of mutation
Slow growth
It can differentiate fully once that cell divides
What are the consequences of geometric growth?
Less mutations
Won't have fully differentiated cells in this growth
Can have rapid cell growth
Explain why the stoma is usually located on the lower epidermis
This is due to decreasing the risk of transpiration. In a warm environment, the leaf is usually warmer than the air and due to convection the air rises and water can leave.

The humid layer on the bottom, prevents water from being lost.
Give some characteristics of the epidermis?
The epidermis is a parenchyma
The outer walls are lined with cutin which make it impermeable to water
The wax is also there, work with cutin, to resist digestive enzymes and provide defense against pathogens
Where is the largest surface area in the plant?
This is located in the palisade parenchyma where they are not touching each other.
What is the benifit of the palisade parenchmya?
They make sure the
What is the purpose of the spongy mesophyl in leaves?
The spongy mesophyl is good because it prevents the palisade parencyma from reaching the lower epidermis, this is good because there is less chance CO2 will go back out the stoma.
What kind of leaves show a parallel venation?
Monocots
What kind of leaves show reticulate vennation?
Dicots
Describe the leaf development in the leaf primordium?
The leaf primordium will grow like a horn shape and at some point cells on the opposite sides will grow out and form the lamina
Describe how in monocots the apical meristem is protected?
When the leaf primordium is going, there will be a trickle down effect that causes cells around the leaf primordium to also grow. There will be a tubular part around the growing leaf called the sheathing leaf base.
What part of the plant helps to tell the perception of up or down?
The statoliths, these are dense in the cell and will sink to the bottom
What protects the root apical meristem?
The root cap
What are the two root systems?
Fibrous and Taproot