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69 Cards in this Set

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5 types of micro-organisms
bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae, viruses
negative effects of micro-organisms
food spoilage and disease
pathogen
disease causing micro-organism
positive effects of microorganisms
normal flora, oxygen generating, nutrient cycling, basis of food chain in aquatic environments, food production, break down wastes in soil
bacteria shapes
coccus (round), bacillus (rod), staphylococcus (round bacteria in cluster), streptobacillus (rod shaped bacteria in chains)
prokaryote
no membrane bound nucleus
eukaryote
membrane bound nucleus
peptidoglycan
makes up bacterial cell walls
chitin
makes up fungal cell walls
unicellular fungi
yeast
multicellular fungi
mold
pseudopodia
false foot
flagella
whip like structure for motility
cilia
hair like projections for motility
photosynthetic
get energy from the sun, algae are photosynthetic
viruses are composed of...
genetic material (DNA, RNA), a protein coat, and sometimes an envelope
viruses are considered to be...
on the border between life and non-life
normal flora
bacteria normally present on or in the body; beneficial because they help prevent harmful bacteria from growing
Robert Hooke
first to observe cells
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
first to observe living micro-organisms
spontaneous generation
theory that life could arise from non-life
biogenesis
theory that life comes only from pre-existing life
John Needham
thought he had shown spontaneous generation
Lazzaro Spallanzani
tried to disprove spontaneous generation
Louis Pasteur
finally disproved spontaneous generation
Schleiden and Schwann
developed the cell theory
cell theory
1. cell is basic unit of life
2. all organisms are composed of one or more cells
3. cells arise from pre-existing cells
Joseph Lister
aseptic surgery
Robert Koch
showed that micro-organisms cause disease
Edward Jenner
first vaccine
Paul Ehrlich
chemotherapy
Alexander Fleming
penicillin, the first antibiotic
Bacteriology
study of bacteria
Parasitology
study of parasites
virology
study of viruses
3 reasons for decreased incidence of disease
vaccinations, antibiotics, improved sanitation
first disease to be eradicated through vaccines
small pox
Characteristics of Bacteria
1. single celled organisms
2. prokaryotic
3. reproduce by binary fission
4. cell walls composed of peptidoglycan
Characteristics of Fungi
1. eukaryotes
2. can be unicellular or multicellular
3. walls composed mostly of chitin
4. unicellular = yeast, multicellular = mold
5. reproduce sexually or asexually
6. obtain nourishment by absorbtion, cannot recieve energy from the sun
Characteristics of Protozoa
1. unicellular
2. eukaryotic
3. can be free living or a parasite
4. absorb nutrients in environment
5. reproduce secually or asexually

examples: ameoba (psuedo), paramecia (cilia), paranema (flagella)
Characteristics of Algae
1. eukaryotic
2. photosynthetic
3. need light, water, and CO2 for growth
4. both secual and asexual reproduction
Characteristics of Viruses
1. not cellular
2. core made of one type of nucleic acid (DNA, RNA)
3. core encased in protein coat
4. coat is sometimes enclosed in a lipid membrance called an envelope
5. viruses can only reproduce by using the cellular machinery of other living organisms
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
Viruses can be considered living because...
they are made up of biological molecules (DNA RNA & protein) AND they reproduce
Viruses can be considered non-living because...
they can only reproduce inside other cells AND they are not made up of cells
How did Louis Pasteur disprove spontaneous generation?
heated long neck flasks with the necks bent into s-shaped curves, and they showed no signs of life, this spurred aspetic technique, pasteurization, and fermentation
atoms & orbitals
1 orbital = 2 electrons
2 orbital = 8 electrons
3 orbital = 8 electrons

example: carbon has 6 electrons all together, 2 in the first so there are 4 in the second
what charges make up the nucleus? what charges make up the outer shells around the nucleus?
neutrons & protons; electrons
which bonds are the strongest?
covalent bonds are the strongest, followed by ionic and hydrogen
PH Scale
0 - 14
7 - neutral
below 7 = acidic
above 7 = basic
a substance dissolves in water to produce hydrogen ions is a
acid
substance dissolves in water and consumes hydrogen ions is a
base
substance dissolves in water and has no effect on hydrogen ion concentration
salt
carbohydrate is a long chain of ___ or ___
monosaccharides or sugar molecules
protein is made up of
amino acids (20 different kinds)
satured fat and LDL cholesterol both contribute to...
heart disease
aseptic technique
performing a procedure under sterile conditions
fermentation
process by which sugars are converted to alcohol in the absence of air
pasteurization
process of mild heating just enough to kill spoilage causing bacteria and pathogens
Koch's Postulates (methodology for proving cause of disease)
1. same pathogen is present in every infected organism
2. pathogen must be isolated from host and be grown in culture
3. pathogen from culture must infect healthy organism
4. pathogen must be re-isolated from inoculated organism and shown to be the same as the original organism
all matter is made up of...
atoms (become molecules when they interact with eachother)
chemistry terminology
atomic # = protons in nucleus

atomic weight = total protons & neutrons in nucleus

chemical element = all atoms with same number of protons

molecular weight = molecule sum of atomic weights of all its atoms
1. Hydrogen
2. Carbon
3. Nitrogen
4. Oxygen
1. H1
2. C6
3. N7
4. O8
covalent bond
chemical bond formed by two atoms sharing one or more pairs of electrons
ionic bond
attraction between ions of opposite charge that holds them together to form a stable molecule
hydrogen bond
when a hydrogen atoms covalently bound to one oxygen or nitrogen atom is attracted to another oxygen or nitrogen atom
inorganic compound
small and structurally simple, typically lack carbon and ion bonds are important in these (water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, salts, and bases)
organic compounds
always contain carbon and hydrogen, usually complex and held together by covalent bonds (polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids)
4 characteristics of water
1. high boiling point
2. excellent solvent
3. key reactant in digestive process
4. excellent temperature buffer

*polar