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22 Cards in this Set

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what are the hypothlamus releasing factor and their effects?
1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone releasing hormone (TRH) --> TSH

2. corticotropin-releasing hormone --> ACTH

3. Growth hromone releasing hormone. --> GH

4. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone --> LH & FSH

5. somatostatin -X-> GH

6. PIF -X-> prolactin
what are the effect of GH?
GH
main 5 effects:
1.stimulate chondrogenesis.
2.increase insulin secretion.
3.increase lipolysis in adipocytes.
4.increase absorption of Ca++ and PO from small intestine and mobilised them to growing bones.
5.promote mitosis
6.liver: produce small protein SOMATOMEDIN as intermediate to exert GH effect.
what are effects of prolactin?
1. together with other hormones --> stimulate groth of mammary gland and mlk formation.

2. decrease progesterone secretion by corpus luteum.

3. inhibits LH formation and secretion.
what are the feedback loops of hypothalamus-pituitary system?
Hypothalamic-pituitary (H-P)

1.H-P thyroid axis

2.H-P gonadal axis

3.H-P adrenal axis
what's the nucleus that neurosecrete oxytoxin?
paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus.
what is the nucleus that neurosecrete vasopressin?
supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus.
what are the effect of oxytoxin?
1.triggers [Ca++]i result in myoepithelial of breast contraction --> squeeze milk out.

2.stimulate contraction of uterine muscle.
what are the effect of vasopressin?
1. increase water reabsorption in kidney.
2. increase renal blood flow in medulla.
3. stimulate thirst centre.
describe the hypophyseal portal system.
-hypophyseal artery ramifiy @ lower hypothalamus into capillary bed which takes up the hormones released by hypothalamus at median eminence.

-drain into hypothalamic-hypophyseal vein (down stalk)

-drain into capillary again within anterior pituitary again which stimulate or inhibit the secretion of ant.pituitary hormones.

-coalesce into vein which drain into systemic vein along with post.pituitary vein.
what are the function of hypothalamus?
1. control lower ANS in brainstem and spinal cord.
2.control centre of endocrine system.
3.regulate body temp.
4.intake of food and water.
5.biological rhythm.
6.emotion
7.sexal arousal.
what are the regions of hypothalamus in medial zone?
-preoptic: rostral to optic chiasm.

-supraoptic: above optic chiasm.

-tuberal: between stalk and mammillary bodies.

-mamiillary: anterior to mamillary bodies.
what are the 2 components of pituitary gland and their origin?
1. adenohypophysis: oral ectoderm (Rathke's pouch)

2.neurohypophysis: neural ectoderm (down growth of diencephalon)
blood supply of pituitary gland?
2 pairs:

1. Rt and Lt superior hypophyseal artery supply:
-median eminence
-infundibulum

2.Rt and Lt inferior hypophyseal artery supply:
-mostly pars nervosa.
what are multiple effects of cortisol?
1.anti-insulin

2.alters metabolic reactions in stress.

3.anti-inflammatory

4.increase in free water clearance

5.increase BP

6.stimulate polycynthemia

7.suppress immune system

8.increase Na+ reabsorption
what happen when cortisol in excess?
-glucose intolerance

-redistribution of adipose tissues

-cushings'
what are the major CONTROL MECHANISM of mineralocorticoids synthesis?
1. renin-angiotensin system

2. potassium

3. hyponatremia
what are the functions of mineralocorticoids?
-sustain extracellular fluid volume

-stimulate sodium uptake
effect of androgen?
-increase protein synthesis

-promote male 2nd sexual appearance

-defiminisation

-masculination
what are the cathecolamines?
-dopamne
-epinephrine/adrenaline
-norepinephrine/noradrenaline
what is the precursor for cathecolamines?
-tyrosine
what is tyrosine of?
-phenylalanine
-synthesized in the liver
-from diet
how does tyrosine form cathecolamines?
1.hydroxylation of tyrosine.
-form: dehydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)

2.decarboxylation of DOPA
-form: dopamine