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70 Cards in this Set

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Pigeon Skull - Zygomatic arch (jugal bar)
Basically the jugal and quadratojugal. Thin rod like bar that extends onto the maxilla (upperbeak area)
Pigeon Skull - frontal
Larger plate of skull; extends down to nasal
Pigeon Skull - prefrontal
plate anterior to the frontal
Pigeon Skull - lacrimal
ventral to prefrontal
Pigeon Skull - nasal
running ventralanteriorly from the lacrimal to join with jugal with both meeting at the posterior end of the jugal
Pigeon Skull - premaxilla
The tip of the upper beak
Pigeon Skull - maxilla
The thicker extensions of the upper beak
Pigeon Skull - palatine
On the ventral view of the skull; winged shaped and connect with the maxilla
Pigeon Skull - jugal
Long slender rod on either side of skull. Connects with wuadrato jugal and quadrate
Pigeon Skull - pterygoid
a ventral protrubance coming from quadrate
Pigeon Skull - quadratojugal
more posterior end of jugal bar
Pigeon Skull - quadrate
Triangular shaped bone to which the quadratojugal and jugal protrude dorsally and ventrally
Pigeon Skull - occipital
At the base of the skull below the parietal
Pigeon Skull - postorbital process
protrusion that lies at the posteroventral margin of the orbit
Pigeon Skull - squamosal
Located on the lateral walls of the cranium; adjacent to parietal and frontal
Pigeon Skull - parietal
posterior to frontal; rectangular; 'back of the head'
Pigeon Skull - sclerotic ring (Function)
Circle of small bones that support the eyeball
Pigeon Skull - hyoid apparatus (function)
slender elongated y shaped structure that supports the tongue
Pigeon Skull - dentary
Anterior half of lower beak
Pigeon Skull - Region of angular
Posterior end of lower beak; ventral to region of articular
Pigeon Skull - region of articular
Posterior end of lower beak; dorsal to region of angular
Pigeon Skull - coronoid process
point on dorsalposterior side of lower jaw
Pigeon Skull - vomer
Arrowhead shaped plate on the underside of skull
Pigeon Skull - parasphenoid
Posterior end of Vomer
Pigeon Skull - basioccipital
Anterior to occipital condyle
Pigeon Skull - foramen magnum
Large hole in the occiptal
Pigeon Skull - occiptal condyle
anterior end of foramen magnum ( hole where vertebral column begins)
Pigeon Skull - basissphenoid
Posterior to parasphenoid and anterior to basiooccipital
Pigeon - Second digit (phalanx 2)
Tip of wing bone
Pigeon - metacarpal 2
larger bone of hand area
Pigeon - metacarpal 3
smaller bone of hand area
Pigeon - first digit (phalanges 1 &2)
At ventral base of Metacarpals 2 & 3; small protruding bone
Pigeon - radius
smaller bone of upper wing
Pigeon - axis
Second cervical vertebrae
Pigeon - atlas
First cervical vertebrae
Pigeon - mandible
Lower portion of bill
Pigeon - cervical vertebrae
Neck vertebrae
Pigeon - procoracoid
Body bone anterior to ribs connects to sternum
Pigeon - furcula
anterior to ribs and procoracoid
Pigeon - sternal rib
slender and ventral to vertebral ribs
Pigeon - body of sternum
Large curved plate of bone
Pigeon - carina of sternum
Large vertical plate of sternum
Pigeon - patella
Knee bone
Pigeon - fibula
smaller bone of lower leg
Pigeon - tibiotarsus
larger bone of lower leg
Pigeon - tarsometatarsus
Main foot bone
Pigeon - metatarsals
toe bones
Pigeon - hypotarsus
protrubance on dorsal part of tarsometatarsus
Pigeon - caudal vertebra
Butt vertebrae
Pigeon - pygostyle
end of butt vertebrae
Pigeon - femur
Thigh bone
Pigeon - innominate
back plate like bone
Pigeon - synsacrum
dorsal area of innominate
Pigeon - vertebral rib
ribs extending from thoracic vertebra
Pigeon - uncinate process
dorsal posterior protrustions off of vertebral ribs
Pigeon - scapula
wedge shaped bone jutting out perpendicular to vertebral ribs and parallel to thoracic vertebrae
Pigeon - thoracic vertebra
middle section of vertebrae
Pigeon - humerus
lower arm bone
Pigeon - remigeal papillae (function)
knob like markings for the attachment of flight feathers
Pigeon - ulna
larger bone of upper wing
Pigeon - carpometacarpus
elongated element composed of several carpals
Pigeon - manus
Entire upper portion of wing bones
Pigeon - ilium
large swooping element of innominate bones
Pigeon - pubis
long slender tapered portion of the innominate at the posterior end
Pigeon - ischium
Rectangular from dorsal view and triangular from lateral viw
Pigeon - acetabulum
depression that receives the head of the femur
Why is it necessary for birds to have so many bones fused?
To reduce weight for efficient flight
Pigeon skull - supraoccipital
posterior to foramen magnum ( hole in base of skull where vertebral column inserts)
Pigeon skull - maxillary process of the premaxilla
upper part of top beak
Pigeon skull - nasal process of the premaxilla
lower part of top beak