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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Frederic Chopin: birth and death dates.
What was Chopin's main genre of compositions?
Piano. He composed nothing for symphonies, operas and oratorios.
What type of pieces did he write?
Character pieces, nocturnes, impromptus, intermezzos, ballads, etudes, preludes, dances (mazurkas, polonaises, and waltzes), sonatas and variations.
How many sonatas did he write and how many sets of variations?
Three sonatas and two sets of variations.
What is the establishment of a scherzo? How many did Chopin compose?
An independent genre associated with the practice of separately putting out moverments that together could form a sonata. Chopin composed four scherzos.
How many ballads did Chopin write? What is a ballad?
Chopin wrote four ballades. A ballad is an anonymous narrative involving legendary or historical events, generally with a tragic outcome, frequently associated with violence and the supernatural.
Where does the idea of a ballad generate from?
Composers usually set the ballads and epic poems of the sort to music.
An important element in ballades is the use throughout of the same theme in varied form. Which of Schubert's pieces showed this? Does Chopin use this in his work?
Schubert's WANDERER Fantasia shows this. All of Chopin's ballades show it to some extent.
In the EIGHTEENTH century the nocturno (night piece) was what?
A serenade for a small ensemble, often of wind instruments, to be played out-of-doors and normally comprising of three to five more movements.
Eighteenth Century Nocturnes: Three-part form with lyrical melodies, often embellished, and accompanied by standard patterns of broken-chord figuration in the bass; generally a uniform character is maintained. Much depended on the performer's ability in cantabile playing and in effective us of the pedal.
Chopin's adapted Nocturnes: A simple lyrical melody over and accompaniment based on a stereotypical pattern, the melody usually ornamented by grace-notes, coloratura runs, and elaborate ornamental figures. He presents the melody often in parallel thirds, sixths, and, at the climaxes, octaves, constructing it in regular periods of balanced phrases organized by a simple repetivie scheme.
The small scale of the nocturne is confirmed by what?
The tempo designations indicated by Chopin, modified by expressions such as espressivo, dolce, or languido e rubato.
How do many of Chopin's nocturnes different from the few modeling his predecessor, John Field?
By introducing a contrasting midsection in a new key that uses different thematic material and a different style of writing, often including a trasitional passage and coda.
What is an etude?
Literally study. Primarily a teaching piece -- study or exercise -- designed as a vehicle for the pianist to improve his/her technical ability, except that such pieces at the same time off the opportunity to display the pianist's skill.
What does the etude allow you to "study"?
Typically the etude will concentrate on one technical problem of execution, so that a certain consistency will result since the same kind of thematic material, for the most part, is maintained throughout.
What did Chopin's etudes resemble?
Virtuoso character pieces that are remarkable for their harmonic richness, and exploitation of the sound capabilities of the piano.
What is Chopin's principle distinction between preludes and etudes?
Etudes are larger, preludes are smaller.
Chopin followed Bach's example in arranging his preludes. How was it done?
In pairs beginning with C Major, each prelude in the major followed by one in the relative minor, then ascending a fifth and repeating the pattern. For example: C Major - a minor, G Major - e minor, D Major - b minor.
How did the arrangement of Chopin's etudes differ from that of his preludes?
Again they were grouped in pairs, an etude in the major followed by one in the relative minor and then ascending a THIRD and repeating the pattern, but Chopin broke the arrangement after the third pair. No such arrangement occurs in the etudes.
About how many mazurkas did Chopin write?
Chopin composed some sixty mazurkas, though he did not see fit to publish all of them.
What is the layout of a mazurka?
A mazurka is sectional, with repetition of sections an important principle; usually three or four sections that contrast in key, thematic material, and character are repeated in various combinations.