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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
EPISTEMOLOGY
problem of the relation between the person and the objects of his experience
GENETIC EPISTEMOLOGY
knowledge a process, not a state...is constructed by person and thus changes as cognitive system develops
MENTAL EMBRYOLOGY
cognitive growth embryological: organized structure becomes more differentiated over time
STRUCTURALISM
cf Levi-Strauss & Saussure
looking at organizational properties of the topic
small set of mental actions underlying wide variety of thinking episodes
SCHEME (SCHEMA)
infant's cognitive structure; an organized pattern of behavior, reflecting a particular way of interacting with the environment
that which is repeatable & generalizable in action
STAGE
period of time in which child's thinking and behavior in a variety of situations tend to reflect a particular type of underlying mental structure
SENSORIMOTOR - STAGE I
Modification of Reflexes
- Birth to 1 month
behavior that began as reflexes is strengthened, generalized, & differentiated into schema
SENSORIMOTOR - STAGE 2
Primary Circular Reactions
1-4 months
behavior that occurs by chance but is repeated deliberately and becomes a habit - primary because refers to own body
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE 3
Secondary Circular Reactions
4-8 months
oriented to external world
"procedures for making interesting sights last"
Motor Recognition
a reduced, effortless version of a secondary circular reaction that has become a habit
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE 4
Coordination of Secondary Schemes
8-12 months
intentional combining of schemes to produce a specific goal
includes a differentiation of means and end
applied to new situations
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE 5
Tertiary Circular Reactions
12-18 months
cf. scientist in lab
"the discovery of new means through active experimentation"
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE 6
Invention of New Means Through Mental Combinations
18-24 months
end of sensorimotor, beginning of pre-operational
overt thought becomes covert
mental symbols represent objects and events
OVERVIEW OF SENSORIMOTOR PERIOD
1. learns about objects and relations among them
2. cognitive structures more tightly organized
3. behavior more intentional
4. self differentiated from environment
OBJECT PERMANENCE
understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen, heard or felt
PREOPERATIONAL PERIOD
2-7 years
CHARACTERISTICS OF PREOPERATIONAL PERIOD
1. Egocentrism
2. Rigidity of Thought
3. Semilogical Reasoning
4. Limited social cognition
SEMIOTIC FUNCTION
ability to use one object or event to stand in for another
begins in preoperationsl period
SIGNIFIERS
Symbols: have some similarity to that which they stand for

Signs: are arbitrarily related to what they stand for
REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT
as opposed to sensorimotor thought
can deal with past, present, future at once
can recombine parts to create new reality
SENSORIMOTOR INTELLIGENCE
like a film in which all frames are seen in succession, but without fusion into contextual whole
EGOCENTRISM
*the incomplete differentiation of self and world
*tendency to perceive, understand & interpret world in terms of self
*egocentric speech, a collective monologue
*no sense of point of view of others
RIGIDITY OF THOUGHT
*centration: focus on one feature while ignoring all others
*focus on states rather than transformations linking states
*lack of reversibility
SEMILOGICAL REASONING
linking of thoughts in a loose way
LIMITED SOCIAL COGNITION
extention of his theory to social objects and events
THE GREAT THAW
end of preoperational period when cognitive skills of function, regulation, identity come into being
function: relationship between factors
regulation: partially decentered mental act
identity: idea that object can change its appearance without changing its basic nature
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL PERIOD
7-11 years
9 groupings