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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
absolute zero
The lowest possible temperature, where all molecular motion stops.
To check or adjust the accuracy of an instrument by comparing it to a known standard.
A temperature scale in which water freezes at 0° and boils at 100°.
coefficient of linear thermal expansion
The percent that the length of an object increases (or decreases) for a temperature increase of 1 degree C.
A phase change from a gas to liquid.
A material that allows its electrons to move freely.
A phase change from a gas to a solid.
A phase change from a liquid to a gas.
expansion joint
A small gap built into a roadway to allow for expansion and contraction of the road surface.
A temperature scale in which water freezes at 32° and boils at 212°.
The transfer of thermal energy. The flow of energy from one object or location to another.
A material that holds tightly to its electrons.
An absolute temperature scale in which water freezes at 273 K and boils at 373 K.
latent heat
The energy required for one kilogram of a substance to change phase.
The product of mass and velocity.
phase change
A change between any two of the three following states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.
Le Système International d'unités (International System of Units).
specific heat capacity
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of a substance by 1°C.
A phase change from a solid to a gas.
A measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance.
thermal energy
The combined sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all an object's molecules.
thermal expansion
The enlargement of an object due to heat flowing into it.
A device used to measure temperature.
Like evaporation, a phase change in which a liquid changes to a gas.
Avogadro's number
6.022 x 10^23.
compressed gas
A gas under high pressure.
Matter that has no fixed shape or volume.
ideal gas
A gas with very low density, such that collisions between gas molecules are rare.
Able to be represented graphically as a straight line.
molar mass
The mass of a mole of a substance.
6.022 x 10^23 objects.
The SI unit for pressure, equal to one newton per square meter.
Force per unit area.
closed system
A collection of particles or objects that are unable to exchange matter with their surroundings.
The ratio of the work an engine does to the heat it receives as input.
A measure of the amount of disorder in a system.
first law of thermodynamics
Energy is conserved through changes in internal energy, work done, and heat.
heat engine
A device that converts heat energy into mechanical energy.
internal combustion engine
An engine in which the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine's chambers or cylinders.
internal energy
The sum of kinetic and potential energies attributed to the particles of matter and their interactions within a system.
isolated system
A collection of matter that doesn't interact with anything else in the universe.
kinetic energy
Energy an object possesses because of its motion.
law of conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, though it may be transformed from one form into another.
mechanical energy
Energy an object possesses of its motion or position.
open system
A collection of particles that are able to interact and exchange energy and matter with their surroundings.
potential energy
Stored energy that can be converted to other forms.
second law of thermodynamics
Heat flows from hot to cold; no heat transfer process is 100% efficient; the natural progression of the universe is from order to chaos.
The study of the relationships among heat, work, and energy.
The product of the force acting on an object and the displacement of that object.