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8 Cards in this Set

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What is the normal axis of deviation?
It lies between -30 and +90 degrees. Thus, if the axis is normal, ECG leads 1 and 11 should show net upward deflections. If either lead, 1 or 11 show a negative deflection, then there is an axis deviation.
In left axis deviation, lead 2 is negative, whereas lead 1 is negative in right axis deviation.
What might cause such axis deviations?
They may result from ventricular hypertrophy(left hypertrophy, ventricular may be associated with left axis deviation in the 0 degree-30 degree range, whereas right ventricular hypertrophy may be associated with right axis deviation deviation or from infarctions or blocks in the conduction system that cause rerouting of the spread of electrical activity.
What does the P wave look like in left atrial hypertrophy?
In this condition or dilatation, the P wave may be M shaped and broad in lead 11, and biphasic with a significant negative component in V1, reflecting the delayed spread of impulses to an enlarged left atrium.
What happens to the P wave in right atrial hypertrophy?
The amplitude of the P wave increases.
Can ischemia be interpreted on an EKG?
Yes. In general, elevation of the S-T segment, followed by T wave inversion, are ischemic changes that may proceed to full infarction.
Development of deep Q waves signifies infarction.
Q waves persist as an indicator of a previous myocardial infraction.
Wider than normal Q waves in leads, 11, 111, and aVF suggest inferior wall infarction(the inferior wall is the diaphragmatic surface of the heart). TRUE/FALSE
Blocks in electrical transmission along the right or left bundles cause rerouting of discharges to the ventricles. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. This may cause as well a peculiar notched appearance in the QRS, more prominent in V5-V6 in left bundle branch block, and more prominent in V1 and V2 in right bundle branch block.
What metabolic changes can one see on the EKG?
In hyperkalemia, one sees tall, peaked T waves.
In hypokalemia, U wave and a flat T wave is observed.
In hypercalcemia, a short Q-T interval is noticed and in hypocalcemia, a prolonged Q-T interval is evident.