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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the pancreatic endocrine hormones?
Insulin
Glucagon
Somatostatin
Insulin is a polypeptide hormone. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
What are the steps of insulin synthesis?
Preproinsulin---Proinsulin(C-peptide joins chains A and B)---Insulin + C peptide.
What is the importance of C- peptide?
It distinguishes an endogenous source of insulin from an exogenous source.
Where is insulin secreted?
Into portal circulation.
How are the effects of insulin mediated?
Through insulin receptors on various tissues.
What is insulins second messenger system?
Insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase, which phosphorylates itself and other proteins.
Name 5 actions of insulin in skeletal and cardiac muscle.
1. Increase glucose uptake via Glut4(insulin sensitive glucose transporter)
2. Increase active transport of amino acids
3. Increase protein synthesis
4. Decrease protein degradation
5. Increase K+ into cells
Name the actions of insulin on the liver.
1. Decrease gluconeogenesis
2. Decrease glycogenolysis
3. Increase glycogenesis
Regarding adipocytes, insulin will increase triglyceride sysnthesis, and decrease lipolysis. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is the overall effect of insulin on serum levels of:
Glucose
Amino acids
Fatty acids
Ketoacids
K+
Glucose- decrease
Amino acids-decrease
Fatty acids-Decrease
Ketoacids-Decrease
K+- Decrease
What factors regulate insulin secretion?
Increase blood glucose
Increase amino acids(leucine, arginine)
Increase fatty acids
Gastric inhibitory peptide(GIP)
Vagus nerve stimulation
GH
SS(inhibitory effect)
How do the pancreatic beta cells sense serum glucose?
Via Glut2(glucose sensor glucose transporter)---Glucose binds Glut2 on Beta cells---Glucose metabolized to ATP--- Beta cell membrane depolarization---Insulin release from pancreas.
Describe insulin receptor regulation in the starvation state and in Obesity.
Starvation-Up regulation
Obesity- Down regulation
What is Glucagon?
A single chain polypeptide hormone
Where is glucagon secreted?
Into portal circulation
What is Glucagons second messenger system?
cAMP
name the actions of glucagon on the liver.
1. Increased glycogenolysis
2. Increased gluconeogenesis
3. Increased Lipolysis
4. Decreased protein degradation
5. Decreased protein synthesis
On adipocytes- Increased lipolysis
What is the overall effect of glucagon on serum levels of, Glucose, fatty acids and Ketoacids?
All are increased.
What factors regulate glucagon secretion?
Decrease blood glucose
Increased amino acids(arginine, leucine)
Epi
NE
Glucocorticoids
Cholecystokinin
SS(inhibitory
Where is SS synthesized?
Delta cells of islets of Langherhans
Intestines
Nervous system
What is SS/
A polypeptide hormone-secreted in 2 forms
Name the actions of SS(pancreatic form)
1. Decreased insulin
2. Decreased glucagon
3. Decreased secretion of many other GI hormones