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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What factor determines male gonadal sex?
Testicular differentiation factor(TDF) produced by the Y chromosome.
What three factors determine male phenotypic sex?
1. Meullerian inhibiting factor(MIF)inhibits Meullerian(female) duct from developing
2. Testosterone stimulates Wolffian (male) duct to differentiate to epididymis, seminal vesicles and vas deferens.
What is the third factor that determines male phenotypic sex?
Dihydrotestosterone(DHT) stimulates urogenital sinus and tubercle to differentiate to penis, urethra, prostate and scrotum.
Wht do the testes descend into the scrotum?
To maintain temperature, 2C below core body temperature, which is vital for spermatogenesis.
Name the main cell type of the testis and their associated products.s
Sertoli cell-supportive environment for spermatogenesis, androgen binding protein, MIF, inhibin
Leydig cell- testosterone
Germ cell- spermatozoa(sperm)
Name the anatomic componenets of the testis and their associated functions.
1. Seminiferous tubules(85% of testis)
2. Rete testis- connects tubules and efferent ductules
3. Efferent ductules- transport sperm to epididymis by ciliary motion
4. Epididymis- reservoir and site of further morphologic and functional changes to sperm.
5. Vas deferens- propels sperm into urethra
Describe spermatogenesis.
Spermatogonium(primitive germ cell)---1. spermatocyte (occurs in adolescence)--- meiotic division---2. spermatocyte---spermatid---spermatozoa(mature)
How long does it take for spermatogonia to mature into spermatozoa?
app 74 days.
What is the blood testis barrier?
Tight junctions that protect spermatogenesis by preventing proteins from moving from the interstitium to the lumen of the seminiferous tubules.
What factors regulate spermatogenesis?
1. GnRH
2. FSH
3. Inhibin
4. Testosterone(paracrine)
How is Testosterone synthesized?
1. Cholesterol---(cholesterol desmolase)---2. Pregnenolone---(17 alpha-hydroxylase)---3. 17 hydroxy-pregnenolone---(17, 20,-lyase)---4.DHEA---( 3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase)---5. Androstenedione---(21 beta hydroxylase)---6. Testosterone.
What factors regulate testosterone?
Testosterone(neg feedback)
Name the male accessory genitalia and their associated functions.
1. Seminal vesicles-provides fructose to nourish sperm and secretes 60% of semen fluid content
Prostate- secretes 20% of semen fluid content
Bulbourethral(Cowper) and urethral(Littres) glands; add fluid during sperm transit
What is the relationship between between testosterone and DHT?
Testosterone---(5 alpha reductase)---DHT
Where is 5 alpha reductase found?
What factor stimulates puberty?
GnRH in pulsatile release.