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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the hormones of the anterior pituitary.
What hormones are associated with the posterior pituitary?
Name the hypothalamic hormones and their function?
TRH- increases TSH, PRL secretion
GnRH- increases LH, FSH secretion
CRH- increases ACTH secretion (and alpha MSH, beta endorphin
GHRH- increases GH secretion
Somatostatin- decrease release of GH, TSH
Prolactin inhibitory factor(PIF)(aka dopamine)- decreases release of PRL
Name the connection between the hypothalamus and the following;
Anterior pituitary
Posterior pituitary
Ant- Hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system
Pos- Hypothalamic tract
What is the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system?
Capillaries that carry blood from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary, and from the ant. pituitary back to the hypothalamus.
What is the significance of the retrograde blood flow?
How are the anterior pituitary hormones categorized?
1. GH related hormones
2. Glycoprotein hormones
3. Corticotropin related hormones
What hormones are included in the GHRH category?
GH/PRL/Human placental lactogen(placenta)/Insulin like growth factor(liver)
What hormones are included in the glycoprotein hormone category?
What hormones are included in the CRH category?
What is unique about the make up of the GH-related hormones?
Gh is a polypeptide and is homologous with PRL and HPL.
What is unique about the makeup of the Glycoprotein hormones?
All contain alpha and beta subunits, alpha subunits are similar; hormonal activity comes from beta subunits.
Regarding the uniqueness of CRH, all are from the same precursor, "proopiomelanocortin"(POMC).
What is the action of TSH/LH, and FSH?
TSH-Increases T3 and T4 production
LH- Increases estrogen, androgen production
FSH- Increases oocyte and sperm maturation.
What is the function of GH/PRL, and ACTH?
GH- Increases general growth, decreases glucose uptake into cells-diabetogenic, increases protein synthesis and lipolysis, increases IGF in liver.
What is the function of PRL and ACTH?
PRL- increases milk production and breast development, and inhibits ovulation via decreased GnRH.
ACTH- increases glucocorticoid production.
Name the actions of GH that are mediated through IGF.
Increases protein synthesis in bone muscle, and organs--increases linear growth, increases lean body mass and increases organ size.
What factors increase GH secretion?
GHRH/sleep/stress exercise/starvation/hypoglycemia/SS
What factors increase PRL secretion?
Pregnancy/breast feeding/stress/TRH/Dopamine antagonists
What factors decrease PRL secretion?
PRL(neg. feedback)
Dopamine agonists(bromocriptine/
What is the action of Oxytocin?
Increases contraction of myoepithelial cells in breasts(increased milk ejection/increased contraction of uterus
What is the action of ADH?
Increases H2O permeability of the distal tubule and collecting duct/constricts vascular smooth muscle.
Oxytocin and ADH are polypeptide hormones. TRUE/FALSE
Where is oxytocin synthesized?
Paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.
Where is ADH synthesized?
Supraoptic nuclei of hypothalamus.
How are oxytocin and ADH synthesized and secreted?
Precursor--cleaved and packaged into secretory granules with neurophysins(carrier proteins)
How are the effects of ADH mediated and what is its second messenger system?
1. Renal effect, V2 receptor---cAMP
Smooth muscle effect--V1 receptor IP3
What effect does Lithium have on the body's response to ADH?
Decreases the response.