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9 Cards in this Set

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What is the main function of the renal cortex?
It is filtration of large volumes of blood through the glomeruli.
Logically, the renal cortical blood flow is relatively great and and little oxygen is extracted from the blood.
Cortical blood flow is about 5ml/g of kidney tissue/min. True/False
What is the app. blood floe in the outer medulla?
About 2.5mL/g/min. It is app. 0.6mL/g/min in the inner medulla. Metabolic work is being done, especially to reabsorb Na+ in the thick ascending limb of Henle, so larger amounts of O2 are extracted from the blood in the medulla.
Considering the O2 necessity of the medulla, what disadvantage exists for this region of the kidney?
This makes the medulla vulnerable to hypoxia if flow is reduced. NO, prostaglandins and many cardiovascular peptides in this region function in a paracrine fashion to maintain the balance between low blood flow and metabolic needs.
What is the theoretical concept behind measuring glomerular filtration rate?
It can be measured in intact animals and humans, by measuring the excretion and plasma level of a substance that is freely filtered through the glomeruli and neither secreted nor reabsorbed by the tubules.
Name 1 substance that is employed to measure GFR?
A substance for this purpose should be non-toxic and not metabolized by the body. Inulin, a polymer of fructose with a molecular weight of 5200 that is found in dahlia tubers.
How is inulin administered?
A loading dose of inulin is given IV, followed by a sustaining infusion to keep the arterial plasma level constant.
After the inulin has equilabrated with body fluids, an accurately timed urine specimen is collected and a plasma sample obtained halfway through the collection.
How can inulin clearance be calculated?
U(in)= 35mg/ml(concentration in urine)
V= 0.9ml/min(urine flow per unit of time)
P(in)= 0.25mg/ml(arterial plasma level)

C(in)=U(in)V=35 x 0.9
_______ ________
P(in) 0.25

C(in) = 126mL/min(average approximation).
What else can be used for GFR measurment?
Clearance of cretinine(C(cr) can also be used, but in primates, and humans, some creatinine is secreted by the tubules and some may be reabsorbed.