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What is Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)?
RARE REACTION TO A NEUROLEPTIC DRUG(S)

CAUSED BY DOPAMINE BLOCKAGE IN THE BASAL GANGLIA

SX'S: muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, and stupor.

Other sx's: painful joints, mutism, tachycardia, and urinary retention.

NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME
What are the symptoms of tricyclic overdose?
-Ataxia
-Cardiac Arrithythmia
-Delirium

SYMPTOMS OF TRICYCLIC OVERDOSE
What happens in SEROTONIN OR 5-HT toxicity syndrome?
-CONFUSION
-HEADACHE
-TREMOR
What happens with LITHIUM TOXICITY?
-LOSS OF COORDINATION
-NAUSEA
-SEIZURES
-VOMITING

LITHIUM TOXICITY
What is SYNESTHESIA?
~"JOINING SENSES"

~VERY RARE

~YOU FEEL IT IN ONE SENSORY MODALITY AND THEN FEEL IT IN ANOTHER SENSORY MODALITY

~eg HEAR A COLOR OR TASTE A SHAPE

SYNESTHESIA
Where is the SCN located?
Hypothalamus

The SCN is located here.
WHAT AREA OF THE BRAIN HAS THE GREATEST NEURONAL LOSS IN PT'S WITH ALZHEIMER'S?
MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE INCLUDING: entorhinal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus

GREATEST NEURONAL LOSS W/ ALZHEIMER'S
What does the ANTERIOR OCCIPITAL LOBE MEDIATE?
The anterior occipital lobe mediates PERIPHERAL vision.

ANTERIOR OCCIPITAL LOBE
What does POSTERIOR OCCIPITAL LOBE MEDIATE?
The posterior occipital lobe mediates CENTRAL vision.

What does POSTERIOR OCCIPITAL LOBE MEDIATE?
WHAT DOES THE TEMPORAL LOBE INVOLVE?
The temporal lobe is involved in auditory processing.

WHAT DOES THE TEMPORAL LOBE INVOLVE?
What is SENSORY MEMORY?
Contains information collected from all senses. Retains that information for a very brief period, probably .5 second.

What is SENSORY MEMORY?
What is SECONDARY MEMORY?
AKA LTM. IT HAS A VERY LARGE CAPACITY AND IT HAS A VERY LONG DURATION.

What is SECONDARY MEMORY?
WHAT IS THE DRUG OF CHOICE FOR BIPOLAR DISORDER WITH RAPID CYCLING
CARBAMAZEPINE.

IT IS ALSO GOOD FOR DYSPHORIC MANIA.

DRUG OF CHOICE FOR BIPOLAR DISORDER RAPID CYCLING
What are the side-effects of Ritalin?
-INSOMNIA
-POOR APPETITE
-STOMACHACHE
-TACHYCHARDIA

SIDE-EFFECTS OF RITALIN
What is ACHROMATOPSIA?
PARTIAL OR COMPLETE COLORBLINDNESS. THE CONE CELL DONT FUNCTION OR THERE IS DAMAGE TO THE OCCIPITOTEMPORAL AREA (CENTRAL ACHROMATOPSIA)

What is ACHROMATOPSIA?
What is AGNOSIA?
INABILITY TO RECOGNIZE FAMILIAR OBJECTS OR SOUNDS

What is AGNOSIA?
What is AKATHESIA?
-PROBLEMS SITTING STILL
-SENSE OF RESTLESSNESS

AKATHESIA
What is AKINESIA?
COMPLETE OR ALMOST COMPLETE LOSS OF MOVEMENT

AKINESIA
eg LATE STAGE ALZHIEMER'S PTS
What is ANOMIA?
AN INABILITY TO RECALL THE NAMES OF OBJECTS

ANOMIA
What is ANOSOGNOSIA?
FAILURE TO RECOGNIZE ONE'S OWN NEUROLOGICAL SX'S

ANOSOGNOSIA
What is APHASIA?
DISTURBANCE IN PREVIOUSLY ACQUIRED LANGUAGE SKILLS

What is APHASIA?
What is APRAXIA?
INABILITY TO CARRY OUT PURPOSEFUL MOVEMENTS DESPITE NORMAL MUSCLE POWER AND CONTROL

~DIFFICULTY PANTOMIMING A BEHAVIOR BUT CAN DO IT IF USE REAL OBJECTS; This condition is a type of ideomotor (or limb) apraxia. It is caused by damage to the left posterior parietal lobe and, consequently, is also known as left parietal apraxia.

What is APRAXIA?
What is ASOMATOGNOSIA?
INABILITY TO RECOGNIZE ONE'S OWN BODY PARTS

ASOMATOGNOSIA
ATAXIA
-CLUMSINESS
-INCOORDINATION
-A LACK OF BALANCE

ATAXIA
PT.'S IN GERRY CHAIRS.
What is ATHETOSIS?
SLOW INVOLUNTARY, RECURRENT MOVEMENTS OF THE FINGERS, TOES, ARMS, OR LEGS.

ATHETOSIS
eg Cerebral Palsy Patients
What is BRADYKINESIA?
MOVEMENT IS SLOW

BRADYKINESIA
What is CHOREA?
-IRREGULAR
-INVOLUNTARY
-RAPID JERKY MOVEMENTS
-USUALLY IN THE FACE
-LIMBS
-TRUNK

CHOREA
eg HUNTINGTON'S PTS
What is DYSKINESIA?
-ABNORMAL MUSCLE MOVEMENT INCLUDING TWITCHY, JERKY, AND WRITHING MOVEMENTS (CHOREA, TICS, TREMORS)

DYSKINESIA
What is DYSPROSODY?
-DISTURBANCE IN THE STRESS, PITCH, and RHYTHM OF SPEECH

DYSPROSODY
What is PARKINSONISM?
-MASKLIKE FACE
-HAND TREMOR
-INCREASING RIGIDITY
-SLOWED VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT

What is PARKINSONISM?
What is PARESTHESIA?
An ALTERED SENSATION IN THE SKIN THAT CAUSES NUMBNESS OR TINGLING

PARESTHESIA
What is TARDIVE DYSKINESIA?
REPETITIVE ORAL AND FACIAL GRIMACES, TONGUE MOVEMENTS, SPASMS OF THE NECK AND HEAD, JERKY MOVEMENTS OF THE LIMBS AND TRUNK

What is TARDIVE DYSKINESIA?
What is PROSOPAGNOSIA?
INABILITY TO RECOGNIZE FAMILAR FACES

(DAMAGED AREAS: BILATERAL or RIGHT HEMISPHERE DAMAGE IN OCCIPITAL LOBE)

What is PROSOPAGNOSIA?
What is SYNESTHESIA?
A RARE CONDITION IN WHICH THE STIMULATION OF ONE SENSORY MODALITY TRIGGERS A SENSATION IN ANOTHER SENSORY MODALITY

What is SYNESTHESIA?
What are the NEUROTRANSMITTERS?

(D A N G S)
DOPAMINE
ACETYCHOLINE
NOREPINEPHRINE
GABA
SEROTONIN

NEUROTRANSMITTERS
What is DOPAMINE?
INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF MOVEMENT & MOOD

HIGH: SCHIZOPHRENIA, OVERSENSITIVITY: TOURETTE'S,SUB ADDICTION & LOW: PARKINSON'S & DEPRESSION

What is DOPAMINE?
What is ACETYCHOLINE?
ALZHEIMER'S (LOW LEVELS), VOLUNTARY MOV., MEMORY, AND COGNITION

What is ACETYCHOLINE?
What is NOREPINEPHRINE?
"FIGHT OR FLIGHT," MANIA & DEPRESSION, EATING DISORDERS, APPETITE, PAIN PERCEPTION

What is NOREPINEPHRINE?

(HIGH = SCHIZO)
GABA
ANXIETY, EPILEPSY/SEIZURE, SLEEP, CALMING EFFECT, ABNORMAL TRANSMISSION SUSPECTED IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

(LOW = SCHIZO)

(HUNTINGTON'S)

(ALWAYS INHIBITORY)
What is SEROTONIN (5-HT)?
MANIA, OCD, DEPRESSION, EATING DISORDERS (MODE), APPETITE, MOOD, PAIN PERCEPTION, SLEEP REGULATION, AGGRESSION, SEX, SUICIDALITY

HIGH = SCHIZO, AUTISM, ANOREXIA
LOW = DEPRESSION, SUICIDE, OCD, TRICHOTILLOMANIA, BULUMIA

What is SEROTONIN (5-HT)?
What is KLUVER-BUCY SYNDROME?
HAPAH (HYPERPHAGIA, AGNOSIA, PLACID, APATHY, AND HYPERSEXUAL)

SAAD (SEIZURE, AMNESIA, APHASIA, DEMENTIA)

What is KLUVER-BUCY SYNDROME?
Where is the damage located in QUADRIPLEGIA?
DAMAGE AT THE CERVICAL/NECK LEVEL

QUADRIPLEGIA
Where is damage located in PARAPLEGIA?
DAMAGE AT THE THORACIC LEVEL

PARALEGIA
How many cranial nerves are in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM?
12 CRANIAL NERVES

31 SETS OF SENSORY AND MOTOR NERVES

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
THE SYMPATHETIC BRANCH
ASSOCIATED WITH AROUSAL AND EXPENDITURE OF ENERGY "FIGHT OR FLIGHT"

THE SYMPATHETIC BRANCH
THE PARASYMPATHETIC BRANCH
BIOFEEDBACK, RELAXATION, ETC.

THE PARASYMPATHETIC BRANCH
WHERE IS THE RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS)?
IN THE MIDBRAIN

PART OF THE RETICULAR FORMATION

VITAL TO CONSCIOUSNESS, AROUSAL, AND WAKEFULNESS

THE RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS)
WHERE IS THE SUBCORTICAL STRUCTURES LOCATED?
PART OF THE FOREBRAIN

CONTAINS THE THALAMUS, HYPOTHALUMUS, LIMBIC SYSTEM, BASAL GANGLIA, & CORTEX.

WHERE IS THE SUBCORTICAL STRUCTURES LOCATED?
THE HYPOTHALAMUS
PART OF THE FORERAIN

INVOLVED IN HUNGER, THIRST, SEX, SLEEP, BODY TEMP, MOVEMENT, AND MEDIATION OF EMOTIONAL REACTIONS

(eg DECORTICATE ANIMALS EXPERIENCE VIOLENT RAGE RESPONSES TO TRIVIAL STIMULI)

THE HYPOTHALAMUS
THE SCN
PART OF THE FOREBRAIN

IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS

MEDIATES SLEEP-WAKE CYCLE, AND OTHER CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS

THE SCN
What is the BASAL GANGLIA?
PART OF FOREBRAIN

INCLUDES:
-CAUDATE NUCLEUS
-PUTAMEN
-GLOBUS PALLIDUS
-SUBSTATIA NIGRA

The BASAL GANGLIA
What are ALPHA WAVES?
Occur during a RELAXED WAKE period.

ALPHA WAVES
What are BETA WAVES?
Occurs during
-ALERTNESS (stage 1)
-REM SLEEP (stage 5)

BETA WAVES
What are DELTA WAVES?
They occur during SLOW DEEP, NON DREAMING (NREM/stage 4)SLEEP.

DELTA WAVES.
What are THETA WAVES?
Can occur during STAGE 1 (mostly ALHPA) OF SLEEPING.

THETA WAVES.
WHAT HAPPENS TO SOMEONE'S SLEEP IF THEY ARE DEPRESSED?
-ONSET OF REM IS RAPID
- > REM
- < SLOW WAVE SLEEP

A Depressed Person's Sleep State.
What are PARTIAL SEIZURES?
They BEGIN ON ONE SIDE OF THE BRAIN.

AFFECTS ONE SIDE OF THE BODY

2 TYPES:

-SIMPLE (NO LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS)

-COMPLEX (SOME ALTERATION IN UNCONSCIOUS)

PARTIAL SEIZURES
What are TONIC-CLONIC (GRAND MAL) SEIZURES?
-TONIC STAGE = MUSCLES CONTRACT AND THE BODY STIFFENS.

-CLONIC STAGE = INVOLVES RHYTHMIC SHAKING OF THE LIMBS, AND POSTICTAL (POSTSEIZURE) DEPRESSION OR CONFUSION WITH AMNESIA FOR THE ICTAL EVENT.

TONIC-CLONIC (GRAND MAL) SEIZURES
What are ABSENCE (PETIT) SEIZURES?
-BRIEF ATTACKS
-LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS W/O MOTOR SYMPTOMS

-PERSON WILL HAVE A BLANK STARE, WITH FREQUENT EYE BLINKING

-ORIGINATES IN THE THALAMUS ("GATEWAY TO CONSCIOUSNESS")

TOO MUCH GABA RECEPTORS = ABSENCE (PETIT) SEIZURES

ABSENCE (PETIT) SEIZURES.
What is the MEDULLA function?
-THE BODY'S VITAL FUNCTIONS e.g. BREATHING AND HEART RATE.

FUNCTION OF THE MEDULLA
What are NICOTINIC RECEPTORS?
THE NICOTINE IN TOBACCO EXERTS ITS EFFECTS ON PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR BY BINDING TO NICOTINIC RECEPTORS IN THE BRAIN.

NICOTINIC RECEPTORS
ACCORDING TO BECK, HOW WOULD A DEPRESSED PERSON EVALUATE A NEGATIVE EVENT?
-EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL (real power resides outside of me, that power determine's my life)
-INTERNAL LOCUS OF RESPONSIBILITY

BECK: DEPRESSED INDIV. EVALUATION OF A NEGATIVE EVENT
What are the side-effects of SSRI/PROZAC (FLUOXETINE)?
SLEEPY AND ANXIOUS

SSRI/PROZAC (FLUOXETINE)
KORSAKOFF'S SYNDROME, DAMAGE IN BRAIN LOCATED SPECIFICALLY IN THE...
MAMMILARY BODIES, WHICH IS PART OF THE DIENCEPHALON (THALAMUS, HYPOTHALAMUS, AND PARTS OF LIMBIC SYSTEM)

DAMAGE IN BRAIN DUE TO KORSAKOFF'S SYNDROME
WHAT PART OF THE BRAIN IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PETIT-MAL SEIZURES?
THALAMUS

RESPONSIBLE FOR PETIT-MAL SEIZURES
What happens when there is DAMAGE TO PARIETAL LOBE?
-Aphasia
-Visual Deficits
-Somatosensory Disturbances

DAMAGE TO PARIETAL LOBE
What happens when there is DAMAGE TO TEMPORAL LOBE?
The Temporal Lobes are involved in AUDITORY and VISUAL processing, and damage is associated with Visual Deficits and Memory Loss.

DAMAGE TO TEMPORAL LOBE
What are some TEMPORARY SIDE-EFFECTS OF PROZAC?
SLEEPINESS AND ANXIETY

TEMPORARY SIDE-EFFECTS OF PROZAC
What are the STRUCTURAL IMAGING TECHNIQUES?
*CT

*MRI

STRUCTURAL IMAGING TECHNIQUES
What is a FUNCTIONAL IMAGING TECHNIQUES?
*PET

*SPECT

*fMRI

FUNCTIONAL IMAGING TECHNIQUE
What is GLUTAMATE responsible for?
MEMORY, LEARNING

HIGH: "EXCITOTOXICITY">>>> SEIZURES, STROKE-RELATED DAMAGE, HUNTINGTON'S, ALZHEIMERS

GLUTAMATE
What do ENDORPHINS mediate?
MEDIATES ANALGESIC (Pain Relief) EFFECTS, PLEASURABLE EXPERIENCES, EMOTIONS, LEARNING & MEMORY, AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

ENDORPHINS
What are the divisions of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM?
1. SNS
-SKELETAL MOTOR SYSTEM
-SENSORY SYSTEM
2. ANS -SMOOTH MUSCLES OF ORGANS

-SYM -FIGHT
-PARASYM -RELAX

DIVISIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
What is the HINDBRAIN responsible for?
MEDULLA-BREATH, HEART R, BLOOD PRESS

CEREBELLUM-BALANCE, MOTOR LEARNING

HINDBRAIN
What is the MIDBRAIN responsible for?
-RETICULAR FORMATION or SLEEP & WAKE, MOTOR MOV, PAIN, SOME REFLEX

-ARAS, or AWARENESS, AROUSAL, & ATTENTION

MIDBRAIN
What is in the FOREBRAIN?
HYPOTHALAMUS: 4 F'S

THALAMUS: RELAY STATION FOR ALL SENSES EX SMELL, MEMORY TOO

BASAL GANGLIA: CAUDATE NUCLEUS, PUTAMEN, & GLOBUS PALLIDUS>>>>> VOLUNTARY MOV, MOTOR LEARNING,

ABNORMAL-HUNTINGTON'S, PARKINSON'S, TOURETTE'S

LIMBIC SYSTEM- AMYGDALA, HIPPOCAMPUS (SMALL= PTSD AND DEPRESSION)

-FOREBRAIN-
What is the LEFT (DOMINANT) HEMISPHERE is responsible for?
LANGUAGE

VERBAL MEMORY

LOGIC

RATIONAL THOUGHT

+ EMOTIONS

LEFT (DOMINANT) HEMISPHERE
What is the RIGHT (NONDOMINANT) HEMISPHERE responsible for?
VISUAL-SPATIAL SKILLS

CREATIVE

INTUITIVE THOUGHT

NONVERBAL MEMORY

NEGATIVE EMOTIONS

RIGHT (NONDOMINANT) HEMISPHERE
Name the THEORIES OF EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE?
*JAMES-LANGE THEORY


*CANNON-BARD THEORY

*SCHACHTER-SINGER TWO FACTOR THEORY

THEORIES OF EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE
What does the JAMES-LANGE THEORY say?
-PERCEPTIONS OF BODILY FUNCTIONS, THERE IS TIME BETWEEN. (eg "Your afraid because your knees are shaking.")

JAMES-LANGE THEORY
Describe the CANNON-BARD THEORY.
-BODILY & EMOTIONAL REACTIONS OCCUR SIMULTANEOUSLY, NO TIME BETWEEN

CANNON-BARD THEORY
Describe the SCHACHTER-SINGER TWO FACTOR THEORY.
- EMOTIONAL RESPONSES COMBIN OF PHYSIO AROUSAL & COGNITIVE INTERPRET,

(E.G. COGNITIVE THEORY, EPINEPHRINE STUDY)

SCHACTER-SINGER TWO FACTOR THEORY
What are the TRADITIONAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS?
CHLORPROMAZINE (THORAZINE)
THIORIDAZINE (MELLARIL)
HALOPERIDOL (HALDOL)

SCHIZO & DIS W/ PSYCHOTIC FEAT, GOOD FOR + SX'S

BLOCK DOPAMINE RECEPTORS

SIDE EFFECTS: ANTICHOLINERGIC EFFECTS, EXTRAPYRAMIDAL EFFECTS, NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME

TRADITIONAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS
What are the ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS?
CLOZAPINE (CLOZARIL)
RISPERIDONE (RISPERDAL)

ACT ON DOPAMINE RECEPTORS FOR DOPAMINE, SEROTONIN, & NOREPINEPHRINE

SIDE EFFECTS:
ANTICHOLINERGIC EFFECTS, LOWERED SEIZURE THRESHOLD, SEDATION, AGRANULOCYTOSIS (BLOOD DISEASE), NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME

ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS
What are the ANTIDEPRESSANTS?
SSRI'S (melancholic depression, OCD, Bulumia)

-FLUOXETINE (PROZAC)
-SERTRALINE (ZOLOFT)


TRICYCLICS (TCA'S)

-DOXEPIN (SINEQUAN)
-IMIPRAMINE (TOFRANIL)
-CLOMIPRAMINE (ANAFRANIL)

MAOIs ("ATYPICAL DEPRESSION)

-PHENELZINE (NARDIL)
-TRANYLCYPROMINE (PARNATE)

ANTIDEPRESSANTS
ANTI DEPRESSANTS:

SSRI'S
DEPRESSION, OCD, EATING DISORDERS

-FLUOXETINE (PROZAC)
-SERTRALINE (ZOLOFT)

BLOCK REUPTAKE OF SEROTONIN

SIDE EFFECTS:

INSOMNIA, ANOREXIA, SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, GASTROINTESTINAL DISTURBANCES (LESS COGNITIVE SIDE-EFFECTS THAN TCAs)

ANTI DEPRESSANTS: SSRI'S
ANTIDEPRESSANTS:

TRICYCLICS (TCA'S)
"TYPICAL DEPRESSION"

-DOXEPIN (SINEQUAN)
-IMIPRAMINE (TOFRANIL)
-CLOMIPRAMINE (ANAFRANIL)

BLOCK REUPTAKE OF NOREPINEPHRINE, SEROTONIN, &/or DOPAMINE

SIDE EFFECTS:
ANTICHOLINERGIC SXs, GASTROINTESTINAL PROBLEMS, CONFUSION & MEMORY PROBLEMS, SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, CARDIOTOXIC & CAN BE LETHAL IN OVERDOSE

ANTIDEPRESSANTS: TRICYCLICS (TCA'S)
ANTIDEPRESSANTS:

MAOIs
"ATYPICAL DEPRESSION"

-PHENELZINE (NARDIL)
-TRANYLCYPROMINE (PARNATE)

INHIBIT the ENZYME MONOAMINE OXIDASE, WHICH DEACTIVATES DOPAMINE, NOREPINEPHRINE, & SEROTONIN

SIDE EFFECTS:

ANTICHOLINERGIC SXs, INSOMNIA, HA, TREMOR (MAOIs + DRUGS (e.g. antihistamines) or food containining tyramine (yogurt, soy sauce, over ripe avocados) >>>>>> HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS

(NOTE: CHEESE IS OKAY, AGED CHEESE IS NOT)

ANTIDEPRESSANTS: MAOIs
What are MOOD STABILIZERS used for?
USE: BIPOLAR DISORDER

-LITHIUM
-ANTICONVULSANT DRUGS eg CARBAMAZEPINE (TEGRETOL), VALPROIC ACID (DEPAKOTE)

MIGHT AFFECT REUPTAKE OF SEROTONIN & NOREPINEPHRINE

SIDE EFFECTS:

LITHIUM = NAUSEA, POLYDIPSIA & POLYURIA, COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS, FINE HAND TREMOR

CARBAMZEPINE = LETHARGY, TREMOR, ATAXIA, VISUAL DISTURBANCES

MOOD STABLIZERS
What are the ANXIOLYTICS?
USE: ANXIETY, INSOMNIA, TREMOR, SEIZURES

BENZOS:

-ALPRAZOLAM (XANAX)
-CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE (LIBRIUM)
-DIAZEPAM (VALIUM)

INCREASE GABA LEVELS

SIDE EFFECTS:

DROWSINESS & SEDATION, CONFUSION, DISORIENTATION, PARADOXICAL AGITATION, REBOUND EXCITATION

(ADDICTIVE)

ANXIOLYTICS
What are the BETA-BLOCKERS?
USE: HYPERTENSION, ANGINA, MIGRAINE HA, GLAUCOMA, & ESSENTIAL TREMOR, PHYSICAL SXs of ANXIETY eg palpitations, tremor, sweating

PROPRANOLOL (INDERAL)

BLOCK RECEPTORS THAT RESPOND TO EPINEPHRINE & NOREPINEPHRINE

SIDE EFFECTS:

BRADYCARDIA, HYPOTENSION, SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION,MEMORY IMPAIRMENT, & DEPRESSION

BETA-BLOCKERS
What are PSYCHOSTIMULANTS used for?
USE: ADHD

-METHYLPHENIDATE (RITALIN)
-PEMOLINE (CYLERT)
-ADDERRAL

INCREASE the AVAILABILITY of NOREPINEPHRINE & DOPAMINE

SIDE EFFECTS:

DYSPHORIA, INSOMNIA, DECREASED APPETITE, TICS, OBSSESSIVE COMPULSIVE SXs

(DRUG HOLIDAYS HELP WITH GROWTH SUPRESSION)

PSYCHOSTIMULANTS
What is Associative Visual Agnosia?
You recognize a familiar object(s) by looking at it or them but you can't name it.

The visual and language areas become disconnected.

ASSOCIATIVE VISUAL AGNOSIA
What is Conduction Aphasia?
A lesser form of Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia.

Comprehension is not bad but the individual cannot repeat what one just said.

CONDUCTION APHASIA
Hemispheric Specialization: RIGHT BRAIN
The right brain is involved with the following:

- ^*^ complex geometric patterns
- :) :)facial recognition
-/&/ music and other non-language sounds
-nonverbal memory
-~~~~~o-o~~~sense of direction
-negative emotions
HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION:
LEFT BRAIN
The LEFT HEMISPHERE is involved in the following:

-letters and words
-verbal memory
-speech
-reading
-writing
-math
-postive emotions
CRITICISM & ELEMENTARY SCHOOL YEARS: BOYS vs GIRLS
BOYS:
-MORE CRITICISM (usually for incorrect behavior, girls for lack of ability)

GIRLS
-MORE PRAISE
What is the Dichotic Listening Task?
Presenting subjects with 2 different auditory stimuli simultaneously, one to each ear. Research has shown that the right ear is more accurate in percieving speech sounds and it is related to ipsilater and contralateral pathways.