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40 Cards in this Set

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From a sample of whole blood, what is the app. percentage of plasma as compared to formed elements/
Plasma=46-63%
Formed elements=37-54%
List 4 plasma proteins.
1.Albumins(60%)
2.Globulins(35%)
3.Fibrinogen(4%)
4.Regulatory proteins(<1%)
What are the comparative percentages of WBC's?
neutrophils(50-70%)
eosinophils(2-4%)
basophils(<1%)
lymphocytes(20-30%)
monocytes(2-8%)
RBC's comprise app 99% of formed elements.
What is transcortin/
It is a globulin that transports ACTH.
What is transferrin/
It is a metalloprotein that transports iron(Fe2+)
Antibodies are derived from plasma cells, and plasma cells are derived from lymphocytes. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is Ringers solution/
It is an isotonic saline containing lactate ions. The effects of ringers sol'n fades as the liver and skeletal muscles and other tissues absorb the lactate ions.
A single drop of whole blood has app 260 million RBC's. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. The average adult has app. 25 trillion RBC's.
What is the Buffy coat/
After centrifugation, the WBC's and platelets form this above a thick layer of RBC's.
An average RBC is app. 7-8um wide and 2,5um thick. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is the average hemoglobin content of whole blood?
It is reported in grams of Hb/deciliter of whole blood. Normal ranges are 14-18/dl in males and 12-16 in females.
The protein molecule of hemoglobin is a quartenary structure. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Each chain is a globular protein subunit that resembles the myoglobin in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Each hemoglobin chain has a single molecule of heme. each heme hold an iron ion. It forms oxyhemoglobin.
Can fetal hemoglobin be stimulated in adults?
yes. by the administration of drugs such as hydroxyurea or butyrate. This is an occasional treatment for Sickle cell anemia and Thalessemia.
Each RBC has app 280 million Hb molecules. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. App. 98.5% of the O2 carried by the blood travels through the bloodstream bound to Hb molecules inside RBCs.
What is carbaminohemoglobin?
It is CO2 bound to hemoglobin.
What is the end result of hemoglobinuria?
When hemolysis occurs, the Hb breaks down anf the alpha and beta chains are filtered by the kidneys and eliminated in urine. urine may turn red or brown. Intact RBCs in the urine are referred to as hematuria.
What happens once a RBC has been engulfed and broken down by a phagocytic cell?
The globular proteins are disassembled into component amino acids, which are then metabolized by the cell or released into the blood for use by other cells. Each heme unit is stripped of its iron and converted to biliverdin. This is then converted to bilirubin. This binds to albumin and transported to the liver for bile excretion.
What is Jaundice?
If the bile ducts are blocked or the liver cannot absorb or excrete bilirubin, circulating levels of the compound climb rapidly. The bilirubin then diffuses into peripheral tissues, giving them a yellow color.
What is the fate of bilirubin in the large intestine?
Bacteria convert bilirubin to related pigments called urobilinogens and stercobilinogens. Some of the uroB. are absorbed into the blood and excreted into the urine. On exposure to O2, some of the urobilinogens and stercoB. are converted to urobilins and stercobilins.
What is another fate of iron extracted from heme molecules?
It may be bound and stored in a phagocytic cell, or released into the blood where it binds to transferrin, a plasma protein. Excess transferrins are removed in the liver and spleen and the iron is stored in two special protein iron complexes; ferritin and hemosiderin.
A dietary supply of 1-2 mg of iron a day can keep pace with incidental losses. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What are the stages of RBC maturation in the bone marrow?
Day 1-proerythroblast
Day 2-Erythroblast
Day 3-Polychromatophilic erythroblast
Day 4-Normoblast(at this stage nucleus is ejected)
Day(s) 5-7 Reticulocyte
Day 7+ Enters circulation to become mature RBC.
What is pernicious anemia/
If vit B12 is not obtained from the diet, normal stem cell division cannot occur and pernicious anemia results.
The average US values for blood type are; Type O 46%
A 40%
B 10%
AB 4%
TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is the difference between an agglutinogen and an agglutinin?
Agglutinogens are surface antigens. Plasma antibodies are agglutinins.
What are the standard WBC stains?
Wrights stain/ Giemsa stain
What are the granular leukocytes/
basophils/eosinophils/neutrophils.
Agranular- monocytes/lymphocytes.
Both really contain granules as secretory vesicles and lysosomes.
a typical microliter of blood has 6000-9000 WBC. Most of the WBC in the body at any moment are in the connective tissue or in the organs of the lymphatic system. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is a microphage?
Neutrophils,eosinophils and monocytes are capable of phagocytosis. neutrophils and eosinophils are occasionally called microphages to distinguish them from the larger macrophages in conn tissues.
neutrophils are generally the first of the WBC to arrive at the site of an injury. They specialize in attacking and digesting bacteria that have been marked with antibodies or with complement proteins. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is neutrophilic respiratory burst?
As a neutrophil engulfs a foriegn protein, its metabolic rate increases dramatically. There is also a production of highly reactive agents, such as H2O2 and superoxide anions(O2-) which can kill bacteria.
What do eosinophils do?
They attack objects that are coated with antibodies, but will engulf antibody marked bacteria, protozoa or cellular debris. Their primary mode of attack is the exocytosis of toxic compounds, including nitric oxide and cytotoxic enzymes. They are sensitive to allergens as well.
What do basophils do?
They migrate to injury sites and cross the capillary endothelium to accumulate in damaged tissues where they discharge their granules into interstitial fluids. Their granules have histamine and heparin.
What is the difference between B cells and T cells?
T cells are responsible for cell mediated immunity, a defense mechanism against invading foriegn cells and tissues and for the coordination of the immune response. They enter peripheral tissues and attack foriegn cells.
B cells are responsible for humoral immunity, a mechanism that involves the production and distribution of antobodies, which attack foriegn antigens. Activated b cells differentiate into plasma cells, which synthesize antibodies.
Natural killer cells are responsible for immune surveillance and the destruction of abnormal tissue cells. They may have a role in some forms of cancer prevention. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What are the 4 colony stimulating factors?
1. M-CSF-stimulates the production of monocytes.
2. G-CSF- granulocytes.
3. GM-CSF- granulocytes and monocytes.
Multi-CSF- accelerates the production of granulocytes, monocytes, platelets and RBCs.
A cell differentiating into a neutrophil goes from a myeloblast to a neutrophilic myelocyte and becomes a neutrophilic Band cedll. Some Band cells enter the blood stream before completing their maturation, normally 3-5% of all circulating WBC are Band cells. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is a hemocytoblast?
These divisions give rise to myeloid stem cells or lymphoid stem cells.
Where does a GM-CSF cell derive from, and what are its subsequent divisions?
It derives from a Multi-CSF. It becomes a myeloblast, then a myelocyte which transforms into a Band cell, and Band cells can become either a basophil, eosinophil or neutrophil.
Where does a lymphoid stem cell derive from, and what are its subsequent divisions?
It derives from a hemocytoblast. It then becomes a lymphoblast and a prolymphocyte and then a lymphocyte.