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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Aldosterone: a steroid hormone released from the adrenal cortex that regulates the reabsorption of sodium and secretion of potassium
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE): enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary that regulates water reabsorption by the kidneys; also called vasopressin
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP): hormone secreted from the atrium that regulates plasma sodium levels
Bowman's Capsule
Bowman’s capsule: in each nephron, a cup-shaped structure that surrounds the glomerulus and conducts filtrate into the renal tubule at the inflow end of the renal tubules; site where filtrate enters the renal tubules.
Calcitonin: peptide hormone released from C cells of the thyroid gland that regulates plasma calcium levels
Calcitriol: steroid hormone derived from vitamin D that regulates plasma calcium levels
Clearance: virtual measure of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed or “cleared” by the kidneys per unit time
Collecting Ducts
Collecting ducts: ducts that collect fluid from several different renal tubules and carry it to the renal pelvis for eventual elimination
Cortex: outer portion of an organ such as cerebral cortex, adrenal cortex, and renal cortex
Detrusor Muscle
Detrusor muscle: smooth muscle fibers of the bladder
Distal Convoluted tubule
Distal convoluted tubule: portion of nephron furthest from renal corpuscle
Excretion: elimination from the body through the kidneys (urine) or GI tract (feces)
External Urethral Sphincter
External urethral sphincter: ring of skeletal muscle that regulates the excretion of urine
Filtered Load
Filtered load: the quantity of a certain solute that is filtered at the glomerulus per unit time; equals the product of the GFR and the plasma concentration of the solute
Glomerular Filtration
Glomerular filtration: the bulk flow of protein-free plasma from the glomerular capillaries into Bowman’s capsule
Glomerular Filtration Pressure
Glomerular filtration pressure: sum of the Starling forces acting to move fluid across the capillary walls of the glomerulus
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR): the volume of the plasma filtered per unit time from all renal glomeruli combined
Glomerulus: in each nephron, a ball-like cluster of capillaries in the renal corpuscle; site of filtration
Granular Cells
Granular cells: specialized cells in the wall of the afferent and efferent arterioles that secrete renin; also called juxtaglomerular cells
Internal Urethral Sphincter
Internal urethral sphincter: ring of smooth muscle that regulates the excretion of urine
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Juxtaglomerular apparatus: a collection of specialized cells in the distal tubules and the afferent and efferent arterioles near where the three structures come together in the kidney; regulates glomerular filtration and renin secretion

Juxtaglomerular cells: see granular cells
Loop of Henle
Loop of Henle: the portion of the renal tubule that forms a hairpin loop that dips into the medulla, including the descending limb, the thin ascending limb, and the thick ascending limb
Macula Densa
Macula densa: specialized cluster of epithelial cells found in the distal convoluted tubule in the region adjacent to the afferent and efferent arterioles
Medulla: internal compartment of certain organs such as adrenal medulla and renal medulla
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic acidosis: decrease in blood pH in response to changes other than carbon dioxide levels
Metabolic Alkalosis
Metabolic alkalosis: increase in blood pH in response to changes other than carbon dioxide levels
Micturition: the elimination of urine from the body or urination
Myogenic Regulation
Myogenic regulation: means of autoregulating glomerular filtration rate by the inherent ability of smooth muscle of the afferent arterioles to contract when stretched
Nephrons: functional units of the kidneys that filter the blood and form urine; each consists of a renal corpuscle (a glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule) and renal tubule
Obligatory Water Loss
Obligatory water loss: minimum volume of water that must be excreted in urine to eliminate solutes
Osmoreceptor: receptors that detect the osmolarity of various body fluids
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH): peptide hormone released from the parathyroid glands that regulates plasma calcium levels
Peritubular Capillaries
Peritubular capillaries: capillary bed that branches off the efferent arterioles of cortical nephrons and is located close to the renal tubules; functions in exchange with renal tubules during reabsorption and secretion
Proximal Tubule
Proximal tubule: portion of the renal tubule nearest the renal corpuscle; includes proximal convoluted tubule and the proximal straight tubule
Reabsorption: transport of a substance into blood
Renal Arteries
Renal arteries: arteries that branch off the aorta and provide the kidneys with their blood supply
Renal Corpuscle
Renal corpuscle: site of glomerular filtration; consists of glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule
Renal Pelvis
Renal pelvis: funnel-shaped passage forming the initial portion of the ureter
Renal Threshold
Renal threshold: the plasma concentration of solute at which the transport maximum is exceeded and excess solute appears in the urine
Renal Tubule
Renal tubule: a portion of a nephron, consisting of a long, coiled tube
Renal Veins
Renal veins: transport of blood from the kidneys back into general circulation
Renin: enzyme released by the kidney; converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Secretion: movement of substance from the internal environment to the external environment by transport across an epithelium; movement of a substance from inside a cell to outside the cell by movement across the plasma membrane
Transport maximum (Tm)
Transport maximum (Tm): rate of transport by carrier proteins when carriers are 100% saturated
Tubuloglomerular feedback
Tubuloglomerular feedback: autoregulatory mechanism in which a change in glomerular filtration rate is regulated by paracrines secreted from the macula densa, located downstream from the glomerulus
Urinary System
Urinary system: organ system that consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra
Urine: a fluid produced by the kidneys and eliminated from the body
Vasa recta
Vasa recta: capillary bed that branches off the efferent arteriole of a juxtamedullary nephron and surrounds the loop of Henle; functions in maintaining medullary osmotic gradient