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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The equation for heat loss?
External heat input + internal heat production
Endotherm
Metabolic heat production respons. for sig. prop. of heat input
Ectotherm
primary source of heat is external
Homeotherm
organism that maintains a relative consistent body temp
Poikilotherm
body temp ~ ambient temp
How do ectotherms maintain homeostasis
behavioral homeothermy
temp spec. isozymes
heat-shock proteins
reg enzyme/sub. conc.
reg receptor conc.
Mechanisms for maint. > ambient body temp
reduce SA:V
cutaneous insulation ( fur)
reduce cutaneous BF
Microhabitat select.
increase heat produc. (shiver)
Brown Adipose Tissue
mitochondrial uncoupling
Mech. for maint. < ambient BT
decrease SA:V
increase cutaneous BF
Microhabitat select.
decrease heat prodc. (sleep)
increase evaporation
2 Thermoreceptors
hypothalamus
skin
Thermoreg. center
hypothalamus
Organization of Nervous System
I. CNS
II. Peripheral
A. Afferent (sensory)
B. Efferent
Autonomic
sympathetic
parasympathetic
Enteric
Somatic
Neurons
excitable cells that communicate by transmitting electrical impulses
Fast axonal transport
bucket line?
Neuroglial Cells of the of the PNS
Schwann cells- myelin sheaths
neurotropic factors
Satellite cells-support cell
bodies
Glial Cells of the CNS
Oligodendrocytes
Astrocytes
Microglia
Ependymal cells
func. of Oligodendrocytes

Func. of Microglia

Func. of Ependymal cells
1.Myelin Sheaths

2.Scavengers

3.create barriers b/w compartments
Func. of Astrocytes
form support for CNS
help form blood brain barrier
Secrete neurotrophic factors
take up K+, neurotransmitters
Resting Membrane Potential
diff in electric charge across the cell membrane b/w inside and out
= Neg. ~70 mV
func. of gated channels
control ion permeability of neuron membrane, cause changes in the potential
4 types of gated channels
1. mechanically-gated channels
2. chemically " "
3. Voltage " "
4. Leak channels
Graded Potentials
1.variable strength, short distance, lose strength
2.Na+ Cl- Ca++
3. depolarizing/hyperpolar
4.dendrites, cell bodies
5. can be summed
Why do graded potentials loose strength?
Current leakage
Cytoplasmic resistance
Action Potentials
1. large, uniform, great distance, don't loose strength
2.Due to open/closed channels Na+,K+ when threshold pot. is reached
Func. of limbic System
link b/w cognition and emotions, primitive
What are Basal nuclei and what do they do?
Regions of gray matter deep in the brain
Movement control
What is the Diencephalon and what does it do?
Lies b/w brain stem and cerebrum
Relay station for sensory info
center for homeostasis and Endocrine regulation
What is contained within the Deincephalon?
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland
Pineal gland
What is the Cerebrum made up of?
Three regions of gray matter
1. cerebral cortex
2. basal nuclei
3. limbic system
func. of cerebellum
"little brain"
Processes sensory info to coordinate movements
Corpus Callosum
connects left and right hemispheres
Vagus nerve
innervates most internal organs
Parts of the Brainstem
medulla
Pons
Midbrain
medulla
somatosensory tracts
corticospinal tracts
medulla oblongata connects B & SP C
Pons
works with the cerebellum
Midbrain
eye movement
relays signals for auditory and visual reflexes
Dura mater
outermost meneige
Arachnoid
middle meneige
Pia mater
inner most meneige
Cerebrospinal fluid
Produced by Choroid Plexus

Circulates in Subarachnoid space
Dorsal root of Spinal Chord
sensory from PNS to CNS
Ventral root of Spinal Cord
CNS to PNS
Astrocyte foot processes form tight junctions to make up what?
Blood brain barrier
Sleep
reversible state of physical inactivity characterized by lack of interaction with external environment
Physiologically why sleep?
interleukin-1
interferon
serotonin
tumor necrosis factor
why sleep?
not energy efficient
enhance immune sys.
protein refolding
stage 1 REM
brain waves similar to waking
dreaming occurs
most skeletal muscles inhibited
homeostatic reg. is depressed
Stage 4 deep sleep
Delta waves
no dreaming
most skeletal muscle inhibited
changes is body postition subcon.
homeostatic reg. is depressed
sleep walking