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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
embryonic gonads
become testies or ovaries
what makes the embryonic gonad form testes?
the Y chromosome
what do the testes produce that make the male sex organs?
Testosterone
What makes the femal sex organs develop?
absence of testosterone
What are gametes?
sperm or eggs
Where are gametes formed?
in the gonads
how are gametes formed?
meiosis
How many chromosomes does a gamete have?
haploid, or 23
How many chromosomes are in a zygote?
diploid, or 46
TDF
testosterone derived factor, accompanies the XY zygote, stimulates male follicle cells
What controls the release of LH, and FSH?
the hypothalamus, which makes GnRH, that stimulates the Ant. Pit. to make LH and FSH.
Where are LH and FSH (and GnRH) released from?
The anterior pituitary
What does LH stimulate?
gonadal sex steriods (maintain gonad size)
What does FSH stimulate?
sperm, egg production
How do sex steriods interact with the hypothalamus and Ant. Pit.?
Negative feedback
gonadotrophes
LH FSH
what secretes inhibin?
the gonads
what does inhibin inhibit?
FSH
How are LH and FSH inhibited?
whenever there is enough
How is negative feedback created to stop LH and FSH production?
inhibin, sex steroids
at puberty, what is secreted?
GnRH
GnRH stimulates what?
LH, FSH
LH, FH stimulate what?
sex steroids, follicles
sex steroids stimulate what?
change in secondary sex characteristics and menarche
menarchy
first menstral flow
what causes the growth of pubic/axillary hair?
androgen secretion
where is androgen secreted from?
adrenal cortex
What stimulates the femal growth suprt at puberty?
Estrogen
what does the age of puberty depend on?
percent body fat and physical activity (more active, less fat=later puberty)
What occurs in the seminiferous tubules?
spermatogenesis
are the testes glands?
pared glands
sertoli cells
part of the seminiferous tubule, contain receptors fo FSH
FSH stimulates what?
spermatogenesis
What cells contain LH receptors?
Leydig
What do Leydig cells secrete?
Testosterone
we all have testosterone, what makes us different?
females have estradiol, makes have reductase
reductase
makes testosterone derivatives
spermatogonia
diploids, stem cells, germ cells that migrate from the yolk sack in development
how do spermatogonia replicate?
mitosis
how do spermatogonia make haploid sperm?
meiosis
where does spermatogenesis occur?
walls of seminiferous tubules
spermiogenesis
maturation of spermatids into mature spermatozoa
spermatozoa
head contains DNA and acrosome cap that digests
embryonic developing of gonads
fsh lh high, for 6 months
Lyedig cells
intersitital cells, w/in testes, surrounding ST, producuce/secrete testosterone
LH's target tissue
Leydig cells, b/c produce testost.
sertoli cells
sperm nurturers, IN ST, triggered by fSH, help process of spermatogenesis.
*blood-testes barrier
*lumen fluid production
*trigger flagella production
*synthesize androgen binding protein
*nucleus compacted into sperm head
*cytoplasm phagocytized
estradiol is called
estrogen
aromatase
what makes testosterone into estrogen
how often do spermatagonia replicate?
throughout one's life, so that after puberty, sperm is always available
spermatagonia become mitose, their daughter cell is the...
1 deg diploid spermatocyte
1 deg spermatocytes meiose and become...
2 deg haploid spermatocyets
2 deg spermacites meiose and become...
spermatids, haploid
spermatids become...
spermatozoa
what triggers the production of 1 deg. spermatocytes?
puberty
entire cycle takes...
70-80 days, all stages present @ all times
how do sperm leave the lumen of the ST?
spermatazoa-->lumen-->efferent ductules-->