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60 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
Mitosis - results in 2 daughter cells identical to the mother nucleus.

Meiosis - results in 4 daughter nuclei that differ genetically in composition from the mother nuclei.
Comprised of 9 microtubule triplets in a 9 + 0 array.

Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division; organization of microtubules in cytoskeleton.
Centrosome (made of 2 centrioles - at right angles of each other)
Movement of materials over cell surface.
Protein synthesis. Big chuncks of RNA.
Amino Acids put together here.
Breakdown and recycling of damaged or abnormal intracellular proetins.

Hollow cylinders of proteolytic enzymes with regulatory proteins at ends.
Name 6 Non-membranous organells
1. cytoskeleton
2. microvilli
3. centrocome
4. cilia
5. ribosomes
6. proteasomes
Increase surface area to facilitate absorption of extracellular materials?
Name 5 Membranous organelles.
1. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER & RER)
2. Golgi apparatus (body)
3. Lysosomes
4. Peroxisomes
5. Mitochondria
Modification and packaging of newly synthesized proteins.
Lipid and carbohydrate synthsis
Outer membrane of nuclear envelope is continuous with this.
ER. Typically RER.
Storage, alteration, and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes.

Transports and packages proteins released by the RER.
Golgi Apparatus
Intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens.
Catabolism of fats and other organic compounds; neutralization of toxic compounds generated in the process.
1. Produce 95% of the ATP required by the cell.
2. Has an internal and external membrane.
3. Site of aerobic respiration, whole reason we need atmospheric oxygen.
4. Body cannot manufacture it. Replicate themselves.
5. All come only from the mother.
Site of rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits.

Dense mass, can be 1 or many
H2O2 is a by product of reactions occurring here.
Larger than a vasicle, can be formed by phagocytosis. Also used for storage.
Non-membrane bound structures - in order of decreasing size.
1. Microtubules
2. Microfibrils
3. Microfilaments
Few protein strands; used to move things. (Actin & Myacin)
Used for locomotion; flagellum, cilia.
Move cell or object past cell.
Name the families of organic molecules.
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic Acids
What makes up carbohydrates?
Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
What makes up lipids?
fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, steroids,
What makes up Proteins?
Amino Acids
What makes up Nucleic Acids?
Define Enzyme
Biological catalyst - lowers activation energy for chemical reactions.
Levels of structural arrangement and their priority.
1. Primary - sequence of AA's
2. Secondary - take primary and manipulate with H bonding (alpha helix - most common) or Beta Pleated sheet.
3. Tertiary - Change in tert - egg whites, curl hair. Core body temp VERY important.
4. Quaternary - 2 or more polypeptide chains wrap around each other and behave as a single unit. Not bonded, held together by shape.
Describe Hemoglobin
Prosthetic group; iron picks up oxygen
The iron is oxidized giving a rust color
5 things Proteins are used for?
1. Structural support
2. Transport molecules
3. Immune responses
4. Hormones
5. Recognition sited on cell membranes
Define Passive Transport
Move ions or molecules across the cell membrane with no expenditure of energy by the cell
Define Active Transport
Move ions or molecules across the cell membrane requiring the use of ATP
Define Diffusion; (active or passive)?
Passive molecular movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Define Osmosis; (active or passive)?
Movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from one solution to another solution that contains a higher solute concentration.

Describe Hypertonic
Solution with higher solute concentration - therefore less water outside the cell. will pull water out of the cell and result in crenation of the cell.
Describe Hypotonic.
Lower solute concentration on the outside of the cell - therefore more water on the outside. Will result in water flowing into the cell causing hemolysis.
Types of Active Transport
1. Ion Pumps
2. Rocking Protein
3. Protein Elevator
4. Bulk Transport
5. Vesicular Transport
a. Endocytosis (Pinocytosis,
b. Exocytosis
Types of Passive Transport
1. Diffusion
2. Osmosis
3. some carrier-mediated transport
Describe Ion Pump transfer
1. Active
2. Once molecules bind to receptor site, cell membrane will turn to transport into the cell.
Describe Rocking Protein transfer.
1. Active
2. Once molecules bind to receptor site, the carrier protein will rock to release the molecule into the cell without creating a direct opening to the outside of the cell.
Describe Protein Elevator transport.
1. Active
2. Molecule binds to receptor site. The cell expends energy to move molecule into cell (going up or down) and turn to release to the outside again.
Describe Pinocytosis
1. Vesicular transport - Endocytosis method.
2. Cell drinking
3. The cell membrane indents around dissolved substances in the interstitial fluid around the cell. Forms an endosome in the deep pocket and pinches off and brings into the cell.
Describe Phagocytosis
1. Vesicluar transport. Endocytosis method.
2. cell eating
3. The cell encounters foreign material, pseudopods form and surround the object and their membranes fuse to form a vesicle. The Phagosome then fuses with lysosomes where upon the contents are digested by lysosomal enzymes.
This is performed only by Macrophages
Describe Exocytosis
1. Vesicular transport.
2. A vesicle created inside the cell fuses with the cell membrane and discharges its contents into the extracellular environment.
Describe Endocytosis
1. Vesicular transport.
2. Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis, Phagocytosis
3. Extracellular materials are packaged in vesicles at the cell surface and imported into the cell.
Define Genotype
What alleles of a given gene are present. Your genetic blueprint.
Define Phenotype
Expressed characteristics (anatomical and physiological)
Define Homologous Chromosome and pair
The members of a chromosome pair (one donated from sperm - your father - and one donated from egg - your mother.
Define Autosomal chromosomes
Chromosomes other than the X and Y
What makes up a homologous chromosome pair
22 pairs are autosomal chromosomes
1 pair is sex chromosomes
Define karyotype
Entire set of chromosomes
Define Allele
Alternate forms of a particular gene
Define Homozygous
If the 2 chromosomes of a homologous pair carry the same allele of a particular gene, you are homozygous.
Ex. XX, xx,
Define heterozygous
Two different alleles of the same gene.
Ex. Xx, XY, xY
Describe Incomplete Dominance
Two alleles produce intermediate trates.
Intermediate inheritance. Both alleles express themselves.
Describe Codominance
Both alleles are expressed
Define Simple Inheritance
Phenotypes are determined by interactions between a single pair of alleles.
Function of prostate gland
secretes a milky fluid into the urethra which play a role in activating sperm.
Function of the bulbourethral glands
produce a thick, clear, alkaline mucus that drains into the membranous urethra. This secretion acts to wash residual urine urine out of the urethra when ejaculation occurs.
Regions of the urethra
1. Prostatic urethra
2. Membranous urethra
3. Penile urethra
4. External urethra