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17 Cards in this Set

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All of the following is true of intestinal stem cells EXCEPT:

A. They are found in the crypts of the intestinal mucosa.

B. They never undergo apoptosis.

C. They are the source of the cell types of the intestinal epithelia.

D. They can divide to form new stem cells.

E. They can divide to form intestinal progenitor cells.
B. They never undergo apoptosis.
An important difference between stem cells and nearly all somatic cells in the body is that only stem cells

A. can divide a limited number of times.

B. are capable of self-renewal.

C. are resistant to apoptosis.

D. are a differentiated cell type.

E. have unlimited replicative capacity.
E. have unlimited replicative capacity.
Which of the following correctly describes a caspase?

A. replicates the DNA at the end of chromosomes

B. released by the mitochondria to cause apoptosis

C. the principle protein of necrosis

D. responsible for inflammation after cell death

E. an enzyme that can breakdown proteins
E. an enzyme that can breakdown proteins
Which of the following is a scientific obstacle to the development of adult stem cell therapy?

A. They must first be partly differentiated before transplantation into a human.

B. Immunological rejection is a major problem with adult stem cells.

C. They are very rare and difficult to culture.

D. They can produce all known tissue types.

E. They produce a teratoma if transplanted directly into a host.
C. They are very rare and difficult to culture.
Embryonic stem cells are __________, while adult stem cells are ____________.

A. totipotent, pluripotent

B. pluripotent, totipotent

C. multipotent, pluripotent

D. pluripotent, multipotent

E. multipotent, totipotent
D. pluripotent, multipotent
Cancer stem cells differ from normal adult stem cells in that only cancer stem cells

A. express telomerase at high levels.

B. are highly resistant to apoptosis.

C. can divide and give rise to differentiated cell types.

D. can divide to give rise to new stem cells.

E. have unlimited replicative potential.
B. are highly resistant to apoptosis.
Which of the following correctly describes the importance of the blastocyst in stem cell technology?

A. It is the source of adult stem cells.

B. Each of its cells can produce a complete living organism.

C. It can be safely transplanted into a host to produce normal tissues.

D. Its use has no ethical objections associated with it.

E. Its cells can be cultured to produce embryonic stem cells.
E. Its cells can be cultured to produce embryonic stem cells.
Which of the following is an accurate description of a difference between an hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and a myeloid precursor cell (MPC)?

A. The MPC can form more types of mature cells than an HSC.

B. The MPC is more restricted in its developmental capacity than an HSC.

C. Only the descendents of a MPC can produce a lymphocyte precursor cell.

D. The HSC is more restricted in its developmental capacity than an MPC.

E. Only the MPC has unlimited capacity to renew itself.
B. The MPC is more restricted in its developmental capacity than an HSC.
If a patient has a blockage of the Sphincter of Odi, which one of the following situations would be most likely?

A.Inability to regulate gastrin secretion in the stomach

B.Starch in the mouth would not be digested at all, since salivary amylase would not be secreted

C.The esophagus would not be able to secrete lubricating fluid to help move the food down.

D.Inability to digest major molecules leading to malnutrition despite eating sufficient amounts of food.

E.The large intestine would not be able to absorb water necessary for water conservation.
D.Inability to digest major molecules leading to malnutrition despite eating sufficient amounts of food. @
Which of the following are NOT accessory organs to the GI tract?

A. Pancreas

B. Liver

C. Salivary glands

D. Gall bladder

E. Jejunum
E. Jejunum
Which of the following is NOT one of the four major processes of the GI tract?

A. Digestion
B. Circulation
C. Absorption
D. Secretion
E. Motility
B. Circulation
Which of the following describes liquid management in the GI tract?

A. Most of the water found in the GI tract are from drinking liquids.

B. The liver secretes negligible amounts of liquids.

C. About 2 liters of water enters the colon for re-absorption to allow the conservation of water.

D. Small volumes of liquid are lost in feces.

E. Saliva provides secretes more liquids than the stomach.
D. Small volumes of liquid are lost in feces.
Which of the following is NOT true concerning Splanchnic circulation?

A.Splanchnic circulation is controlled via the abducens nerve.

B.About 25% of cardiac output flows through the splanchnic circulation.

C.Splanchnic circulation contains a large reservoir of blood to act as backup for other body functions.

D.This circulation perfuses a wide variety of organs and tissues

E.This circulation has many parallel elements in blood flow.
A.Splanchnic circulation is controlled via the abducens nerve.
Which of the following is NOT true concerning Splanchnic circulation?

A.Splanchnic circulation is controlled via the abducens nerve.

B.About 25% of cardiac output flows through the splanchnic circulation.

C.Splanchnic circulation contains a large reservoir of blood to act as backup for other body functions.

D.This circulation perfuses a wide variety of organs and tissues

E.This circulation has many parallel elements in blood flow.
A.Splanchnic circulation is controlled via the abducens nerve. @
List, in order, from the lumen outwards, the layers of the gut wall.

1. muscularis mucosa
2. submucosal plexus
3. longitudinal muscle
4. absorptive epithelium
5. myenteric plexus
6. circular muscle
7. lamina propia
1~absorptive epithelium
2~lamina propia
3~muscularis mucosa
4~submucosal plexus
5~circular muscle
6~myenteric plexus
7~longitudinal muscle
Which of the following is true of hormones in the GI tract?

A. G-cells in the duodenum secrete secretin to release digestive enzymes from the pancreas.

B. D-cells in the stomach secrete somatostatin to prevent G-cells from releasing gastrin

C. S-cells in the stomach secrete secretin to stimulate the secretion of bicarbonate from the pancreas.

D. I-cells in the duodenum secretes gastrin to increase HCl secretion in the stomach.

E. G-cells in the pancreas secrete CCK to increase the secretion of digestive enzymes from the stomach.
B. D-cells in the stomach secrete somatostatin to prevent G-cells from releasing gastrin @
The enteric nervous system is composed of which plexuses?

A. sacral and cervical plexus

B.brachial plexus and myenteric plexus

C. sacral plexus and submucosal plexus

D.myenteric and submucosal plexus

E. myenteric and cervical plexus
D.myenteric and submucosal plexus @