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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of compliance.
change in volume over change in pressure
An empysematous lung has a ___ compliance.
A fibrotic lung has a ___ compliance.
The lung follows slightly different curves when it inflates and deflates.
Hysteresis is determined by?
tissue elastic forces
surface active elastic forces (determined by surfactant)
Surfactant ____ surface tension, which allows for?

smaller alveoli (partial collapse) and decreases pressure reulting in maintaining patency of alveoli
The lung volume at which the sum of the chest wall and lung pressures are equal
Functional residual capacity
The ___ of the lung receives more ventilation.
There is more perfusion at the ____ of the lung.
West Zone 1
PA > Pa > Pv, not seen in healthy individuals, heavily favors ventilation over perfusion
West Zone 2
Pa > PA > Pv, perfusion changes w/ inspiration, pulsatile flood flow
West Zone 3
Pa> Pv> PA at the base of the lung, capillaries open all the time, resulting in good perfusion
V/Q mismatch is much greater at the ____ of the lung.
An alveolus w/ ventilation but no perfusion is ____ w/ a V/Q approaching ___.
dead space, infinity
An alveolus w/ perfusion w/ no ventilation is a ______ w/ a V/Q or ____.
shunt, zero
Shunt fraction equation.
Qs/Qt = (CcO2 - CaO2)/(CcO2 - CvO2)
O2 content equation
O2 content = (1.39*Hb*Sat/100) + 0.003pO2
Dead space equation
Vd/Vt = (PaCO2 - PeCO2)/PaCO2
Major muscles of inhalation.
diaphragm, external obliques
Major muscles of exhalation.
usually passive, internal obliques, and abdominal muscles
Accessory muscles
sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, and serratus anterior
The bellows get the air as far as the ?
terminal bronchioles, from there it is up to diffusion
Major resistance to flow in airway
segmental bronchi
To become fully oxygenated a RBC only needs ?
0.25 seconds
RBC spends how long in capillary bed?
0.25 to 0.75 seconds
Why does RBC have 3 times as much time as it needs to become oxygenated?
b/c of times of stress you can increase your HR and still have RBCs fully oxygenated
How do we have a full saturation of Hb when HR is increased by 6-7 X?
recruiting capillaries we do not normally use
What are four things that can cause Hb to give up O2 more easily (shift curve to right)?
increased temp, increased metabolism (DPG), increased CO2, increased H+
Most O2 in blood is?
bound to hemoglobin
Bohr effect
with increased CO2, Hb gives up O2 more easily
Haldane effect
CO2 transport is increased with low O2 levels and is diminished w/ high O2 levels
Some CO2 is converted by ____ producing H2CO3 which yields HCO3- and H+.
carbonic anhydrase
The A-a gradient is ____ in hypoventilation.
normal (5-10)
Breathing 100% O2 will correct every cause of hypoxemia except ?
In acid base imbalance the lungs act ___ while the kidneys take ____
quickly, 24-48 hours
5 causes of hypoxemia
decreaed PiO2
impaired diffusion
VQ mismatch
R to left shunt (AVM)
A-a gradient will be ___ with decreaed PiO2 or hypoventilation.
A-a gradient will be ___ with impaired diffusion, VQ mismatch, or shunt.
The HCO3/CO2 ratio is kept around