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34 Cards in this Set

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1. Which is true of pancreas function as it relates to endocrinology

A. its endocrine function mediates digestion of nutrients in the gut
B. its exocrine function secretes hormones into portal veins for function
C. has Islets of Leiberkuhns that secretes endocrine hormones
D. has 3 cell types in the Islets, each secretes a different hormone
E. mediates macronutrient metabolism
E. mediates macronutrient metabolism
2. What are the 4 types of cells in the pancreas, what do they secrete?
Alpha – glucagon

Beta – insulin

Delta – somatostatin

F-cells – pancreatic polypeptide
3. What is the purpose of insulin/glucagon secretion?
Control blood sugar levels.
4. Which is true of glucose regulation of insulin secretion?

A. glucose enters cells via Glut4
B. glucose metabolism increases cellular GTP and NADPH levels
C. GTP closes GTP-sensitive potassium channels
D. Secretion of insulin is regulated by calcium
E. Calcium channels open upon hyperpolarization
D. Secretion of insulin is regulated by calcium
5. Which is true of insulin regulation?

A. glucagon increases cGMP to stimulate insulin secretion
B. CCK increases calcium levels to stimulate insulin secretion
C. Somatostatin increases pyruvate levels to stimulate insulin secretion
D. Calcium upregulates Glut2 to stimulate insulin secretion
E. Insulin binds to Glut4 to stimulate insulin secretion
B. CCK increases calcium levels to stimulate insulin secretion
6. What factors affect glucagon secretion?
Decreased blood glucose, fasting, periods of high energy demands.
7. What factors affect insulin secretion?
Food intake, glucagon, CCK, beta adrenergic stimulation.
8. Where are some places that require ATP to transport glucose?
Intestines / kidneys
9. Where are some places that facilitate glucose transport, and what Glut do they use?
Glut2 – pancreas / liver
Glut3 – brain
Glut4 – muscle / adipose tissue
10. What effect(s) does glucagon have on glucose metabolism?
Breakdown of glycogen, gluconeogenesis (only in liver), stimulate ketone body production from FA which was made out of glucose (only in liver)
11. What effect(s) does insulin have on glucose metabolism?
Glycogen synthesis, TAG synthesis (glycerol + acyl chains), increase rate of glycolysis to break down sugar
12. Which is true of glucose regulation pathology?

A. under hyperglycemia ketone body production is initiated
B. elevated ketone body would causes acidosis
C. hypoosmotic states would result in synapses pulling apart in CNS
D. the brain has alternative energy sources during pathological states so pathology is not important
E. ketones will be derived upon lipid reduction under pathological conditions
B. elevated ketone body would causes acidosis
13. What does the term euglycemia mean?
Normal blood sugar levels.
14. What is Type 1 diabetes?
Aka juvenile diabetes, occurs when autoimmune destroys self beta cells, preventing production of insulin.
15. What is Type 2 diabetes
Aka adult onset, non insulin dependent, tissues have resistance to insulin
16. What are the 3 main sources of energy. Which three organ systems regulate each of them?
Sugars - liver

Proteins - muscle

Fats – adipose tissue
18. What hormones can regulate basal metabolic rate?
cortisol, T3 (THE MAIN ONE), Insulin (to some degree), epinephrine (to some degree), GH (to some degree)
19. What is thermogenesis? What accounts for the most?
- Heat production from biochemical reactions

– BMR 60+%
20. What is the function of ghrelin? Of leptin?
Ghrelin – induces appetite

Leptin – suppresses appetite
21. Why is calcium and phosphate important for the body? What are some processes that require these ions? What if there was a sudden deficit of these ions?
Growth and cell function, NT, learning and memory, mitosis, muscle contraction, secretion, fertilization, blood clotting, cell signaling, you get crippled/diseased/die if you have a malfunction in any of these.
22. Which 3 tissues regulate calcium and phosphate levels? Which 3 hormones regulate their levels in the body?
- Bone / Intestines / Kidney

- PTH / calcitonin / vitamin D
23. Diagram the steps to how intestines absorb calcium
Calcium diffuses into the intestinal cells, binds to calbindin, calcium unbinds and exits via ATPase pump and diffuses into blood.
24. Which is true of bone?

A. A major component of hydroxyapetite is nitrate
B. Osteoid is composed of Type II collagens
C. Osteoclasts synthesize collagen and assists in mineralization
D. Osteoblasts are macrophage like cells
E. Osteocytes are mature osteoclasts
NO RIGHT ANSWER
25. Where is calcium absorbed in the kidney?
Proximal and distal tubule, loop of henle plays a smaller role
26. Where is phosphate absorbed in the kidney?
Proximal and distal tubule.
27. What are the 3 hormones that regulate calcium and phosphate metabolism, where are they synthesized and what are their functions.
PTH – chief cells of parathyroid, basically increases blood calcium levels

Calcitonin – C cells of thyroid, decreases blood calcium levels

Vitamin D – skin/kidney/liver – increases calbindin and calcium pump to enhance calcium absorption
28. Which is true of PTH

A. is secreted when blood calcium level drops
B. is synthesized and stored in active form
C. activates JAK receptors
D. activates PKC for signal cascades
E. induces born formation
A. is secreted when blood calcium level drops
29. Which is true of PTH action

A. enhances the activity of osteoblasts
B. induces calcium reabsorption by the Loop of Henle
C. Increases urinary secretion of calcium
D. Promotes 1,25 vitamin D formation
E. Decreases the activity of osteocytes
D. Promotes 1,25 vitamin D formation
30. Which is true of calcitonin secretion

A. binds to GPCR receptors in kidney
B. increases cGMP
C. is secreted when calcium levels is low
D. the presence of this hormone is critical
E. is synthesized in G-cells of the thyroid
A. binds to GPCR receptors in kidney
30. Which is true of calcitonin secretion

A. binds to GPCR receptors in kidney
B. increases cGMP
C. is secreted when calcium levels is low
D. the presence of this hormone is critical
E. is synthesized in G-cells of the thyroid
A. binds to GPCR receptors in kidney
31. What role does PTH play in regulating vitamin D?
PTH stimulates 1alpha-hydroxylase activity to make active vitamin D.
32. What role does Vitamin D (active form) play?
Increases absorption of calcium from intestines by increasing cellular levels of calbindin and calcium pump.
33. Diagram the pathway that 1,25 vitamin D acts on to regulate the cell.
Diffuses across plasma membrane, binds to vitamin D receptor, then binds to RXR receptor, then both binds to response element to increase levels of gene transcription.
34. How can menopause cause osteoporosis?
Decrease in estrogen, cytokine production is no longer suppressed, therefore cytokines are free to stimulate osteoclast activity.