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46 Cards in this Set

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1. Which is true of hypothalamic/pituitary function

A. hypothalamus secretes only releasing hormones
B. hypothalamic hormones regulate secretion of hormones from anterior pituitary glandular cells
C. hormones from the anterior pituitary is released into the lymph circulation
D. hypothalamic hormones goes in one direct vessel to the anterior pituitary
E. the superior hypophyseal artery assists in regulating posterior pituitary secretion
B. hypothalamic hormones regulate secretion of hormones from anterior pituitary glandular cells
2. Posterior pituitary hormones are secreted from (neurosecretory / glandular cells) PICK ONE.
neurosecretory
3. Anterior pituitary hormones are secreted from ( neurosecretory / glandular cells aka epithelial cells) PICK ONE.
glandular cells aka epithelial cells
4. Which is true of hypothalamic hormones that regulate anterior pituitary secretions

A. all are peptide hormones
B. TRH stimulates the release of T-cells
C. CRH stimulates the release of Ach
D. GNRH stimulates the release of sex hormones
E. Dopamine stimulates the release of several hormones
F. GHRH inhibits the release of growth hormone
D. GNRH stimulates the release of sex hormones
5. List the 6 commonly mentioned hormones released by the anterior pituitary. What is the lesser known hormone that is also released?
GH, TSH, ACTH, Prolactin, FSH, LH, B-endorphins,

MSH
6. What is the function of GH?
cell growth and division
What is the function of TSH?
– regulate cellular energy expenditure, metabolism
What is the function of ACTH?
– controls cortisol production
What is the function of Prolactin?
– milk production
What is the function of FSH?
– promotes the maturation of follicles in women and sperm in men
What is the function of LH?
– promotes ovulation in women and testosterone production in men
What is the function of B-endorphins?
– endogenous pain killers, opiates
What is the function of MSH?
– stimulates melanocytes to produce skin pigment
8. Define pulses and cycles of hormone release.
Pulses – short pulses of hormone production, mostly to regulate a steady state level of a hormone in the body
Cycles – GH (peak at night), cortisol (morning), menstruation cycle
9. Which is true of growth hormone and its actions

A. it acts through nuclear receptors
B. it is stimulated by somatostatin
C. it is secreted from the liver to act on the body
D. it causes hyperplasia (cell division)
E. it is secreted from the posterior pituitary
D. it causes hyperplasia (cell division)
10. Which is true of growth hormone and its actions

A. It is inhibited by GHRH
B. Retention of sulfur is an index of GH action
C. Inhibits hypertrophy
D. Acts through PLC/IP3 cascades
E. stimulates the liver to release IGF-1
E. stimulates the liver to release IGF-1
11. Which is true of bone (2 right answers)

A. osteoblasts are bone remodeling cells
B. osteocytes are mature bone cells
C. osteoclasts are bone forming cells
D. epiphyseal plate elongation is stimulated by IGF-1
E. osteoid is composed of minerals
B. osteocytes are mature bone cells

D. epiphyseal plate elongation is stimulated by IGF-1
12. Which is true of GF and IGF-1

A. GH acts through IL-2 receptors
B. IGF-1 binds to intrinsic tyrosine kinase receptors
C. GF acts through MAP kinase cascades
D. IGF-1 promotes glucose storage
E. GH inhibits liver secretion of IGF-1
B. IGF-1 binds to intrinsic tyrosine kinase receptors
13. What hormone-related pathology does our mascot Sparty have?
Acromegaly – more pronounced figures, unproportional growth of body parts
14. Which is true of thyroid hormones

A. they are secreted by the anterior pituitary
B. they are secreted by an organ that is located on the upper left side of the body
C. their effects are localized to certain areas of the body
D. they desensitize other tissues to hormone actions
E. they regulate cellular energy use
E. they regulate cellular energy use
15. What is the step-by-step synthesis of thyroid hormone in the thyroid?
1. iodine in transported into cell using sodium
2. thyroglobulin is synthesized
3. iodine is oxidized onto tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin, iodotyrosine
4. iodotyrosines are coupled to form idothyronines
5. stored in colloid
6. thyroglobulin enters cells, and gets cleaved to release T3/T4 into the body
16. What are the 3 types of thyroid hormones secreted and what is the significance of each one.
T3 – active
T4 – inactive
rT3 - inactive
17. Which is true of thyroid hormone synthesis

A. thyroid peroxidase attaches tyrosines to thyroglobulin
B. iodine is reduced and attached to thyroglobulin
C. enzymes attaches iodotyrosines to form iodothyronines
D. iodine is oxidized to form iodothyronines
E. iodothyronines are coupled to form iodotyrosines
C. enzymes attaches iodotyrosines to form iodothyronines
18. An increase in T3 would result in

A. Increased activity in follicular cells
B. increased release of TSH
C. decreased release of somatostatin
D. increased release of TRH
E. increased body metabolism
E. increased body metabolism
19. Which is true of thyroid hormones

A. requires protein carriers
B. is a hydrophilic hormone
C. T4 has the lowest half-life
D. T3 is the inactive form
E. rT3 is biologically active
A. requires protein carriers
20. Which is true of thyroid hormone

A. T3 is usually in greater concentration than T4 in the blood
B. Inner ring deiodinase turns T4 to T3
C. Outer ring deiodinase turns T4 to rT3
D. Deiodinases regulation is dependent on hypothalamus
E. T4 is produced in the most quantity
E. T4 is produced in the most quantity
21. Which is true of thyroid hormone function

A. Is bound mainly to albumin in the blood stream
B. Binds to T3R in the nucleus
C. Binds to RXR in the nucleus
D. T3R binds to TRE directly
E. T3 mainly regulates rRNA synthesis
B. Binds to T3R in the nucleus
22. Which is the role of thyroid hormone in the body?
T3 promotes metabolism and regulates it.
23. What is cretinism?
Insufficient of T3 production in newborn. Impaired cognitive function and developmental defects.
24. Which is true of thyroid pathologies

A. cretinism affects adults
B. low blood T3 leads to decreased TSH secretion
C. Hashimoto leads to hyperthyroidism
D. Graves leads to hypothyroidism
E. Hashimoto is an auto-immune disease
E. Hashimoto is an auto-immune disease
25. What is a goiter?
Enlargement of thyroid gland.
Can be due to lack of iodine, increased stimulating effects and release of TSH to stimulate thyroid growth (hypothyroidism).
Can also be present during hyperthyroidism, such as Graves disease when your body makes antibodies that bind to TSH receptors to overstimulate
26. What is the adrenal gland, where is it located, what are its functions, and what is its anatomy?
Adrenal gland is located above each kidney.

It has the outer cortex with three zones and an inner medulla cell mass.

It is responsible for suppressing immune response, metabolism regulation, stress responses, regulation of sexual characteristics, water regulation.
27. Which is true of hormones of the adrenal gland?

A. the Zona Glomerulosa is responsible for mineralcorticoids
B. the Zona Fasciculata is responsible for androgens
C. the Zona Reticularis is responsible for glucocorticoids
D. the Medulla is responsible for androstenedione
E. the cortex is responsible for catecholamines
A. the Zona Glomerulosa is responsible for mineralcorticoids
28. Diagram vitamin D pathway from cholesterol. Which is the active form? Which is the inactive form?
Cholesterol ~~> dihydrocholesterol ~~> 25 vitamin D ~~> 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D active, 24,25

dihydroxy is inactive.
Vitamin D aka cholecalciferol
29. Diagram cortisol synthesis, include the two major enzymes on the pathway.
Cholesterol ~~> 20,22 Desmolase to make pregnelone ~~> 17alpha hydroxylase + other enzymes ~~> cortisol
30. What is the role of cortisol and other glucocorticoids? What simulates its synthesis?
Stress will stimulate synthesis, and to promote the available pool of energy in the form of circulating glucose in the bloodstream.
31. What is different about the synthesis/release mechanism between cortisol and other peptide hormones?
Cortisol and some other hydrophobic hormones are not stored, whereas most peptide hormones are stored.
32. What is the role of transcortin, why is it necessary (ie, what properties of cortisol requires this)?
Transcortin binds to cortisol in the bloodstream for transport. This is necessary because cortisol is hydrophobic.
33. Diagram the pathway of cortisol action on a cell, include major enzymes. What effects does cortisol, or essentially most hydrophobic hormones have, on cell function?
Cortisol will enter the cell, binds to GCR, form a dimer with another GCR+cortisol and then it binds to response elements on the DNA to regulate gene expression.
Effects on gene expression
34. What anabolic and catabolic functions do glucocorticoids have? What is their ultimate job in the body, rather, what essentially is their function?
Anabolism (building up) – gluconeogensis, glycogen synthesis
Catabolic (breaking down) – break down proteins, break down fats, glycolysis
35. Why are steroids dangerous to give to people with weak immune systems?
Because they suppress the activity of white blood cells, causing increased susceptibility to infections
36. What is Addison’s disease? What is Cushing’s disease? Predict what symptoms will show up in these patients based on what you know about cortisol.
Addison – hypo, low metabolic rate, bigger, lethargic and tired

Cushing – hyper, weak immune system, high metabolic rate, excess energy in blood
37. In the medulla, which of these hormones is present the most for secretion? The least? ~~> Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
Most – epi
Least - dopamine
38. What is the ultimate precursor for catecholamine synthesis? Diagram the steps from the precursor to epinephrine, including the major enzymes involved in the process.
Tyrosine ~~> tyrosine hydroxylase makes DOPA ~~> dopamine ~~> norepinephrine ~~> phenylmethyl N-transferase to epinephrine
39. What is the role of the catecholamines? What nervous system process does it assist with?
Stimulate the body, it associates with the sympathetic nervous system to up-regulate fight-or-flight responses.
40. Are the catecholamines hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

What is the mechanism of action for the catecholamines?
Hydrophilic

- bind to GPCR adrenergic receptors.