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107 Cards in this Set

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The capillary network of the nephon, called the ________.
Glomerulus
In mammals each Glomerulus is supplied with blood from an arteriole called the _________ .
afferent arteriole.
What are the general transport processes of urine formation?
filtration
resorption
secretion
What are the 4 steps of urine formation?
filtration
bulk resorption
dilution/concentration
Final adjustment
Where does the filtration step of urine formation occur?
glomerulus
What gets filtered in the Glomerulus?
All but proteins & cells
Where does the bulk resorption step of urine formation occur?
Proximal tubule
What type of resorption occurs in the proximal tubule?
Iso-osmotic resorption (moves w/ the gradient)
What is an example of what gets resorbed in the proximal tubules?
2/3 NaCl, H2O
100% amino acids, glucose
Where does the dilution/concentration step of urine formation occur?
Loop of Henle
Low tubular & high interstitial osmotic pressure are preconditons for which step of urine formation?
final adjustment
Low tubular & high interstitial osmotic pressure occur in which step of urine formation?
dilution/concentration
Where in the nephron does the final adjustment step of urine formation occur?
distal tubules & collecting duct
What occurs in the final adjustment step of urine formation?
Urine volume & concentration is adjusted.
tubular fluid refers to _______ & interstitium refers to ________ in the process of urine formation.
dilution
concentration
The loops of Henle of cortical nephrons remain in the ___________
outer medulla
Only loops of ________ the descend into the inner medulla.
juxtamedullary nephrons
Most of the valuable solutes like Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, glucose, amino acids, lactate & sulfate are already resorbed in the _______.
proximal tubule
Waste products like ___, ______, _______ & _______ are secreted into the proximal tubule.
H+, organic acids and bases, antibiotica (!)
_______ is resorbed by osmosis in the proximal tubule of the nephron.
water
Driving forces for these transports in the proximal tubule are _________ & _________.
electro-chemical gradients and active transport
The resorption of high amounts of Na+/Cl- from the ascending loop and water from the descending loop results in __________, ___________ & __________.
1.A decrease in total volume
2.A decrease in osmolarity
of the tubular fluid
3. Increase in osmotic pressure in the interstitium
A low osmolarity of the tubular fluid is an important _________ of urine in the distal tubule and collecting duct
precondition to the final adjustment
The transport of key solutes like Na+ and water in the distal tubule & collecting duct is regulated by _______.
hormones
Why is the nephron regulated by hormones in the distal tubule & collecting duct?
To adjust urine volume and concentration as needed.
The __________ regulates the filtration into the Bowman’s capsule
Macula Densa
The Macula Densa regulates the ________ in the tubular system.
flow speed
In the macula densa, if filtration & flow speed decreased, what would happen to resorption?
more time for resorption to increase
The ________ in the nephron generates high osmotic pressure in the Cortex & Medulla.
loop of Henle
A ___________ in the medullary interstitium is precondition of concentrating the tubular fluid in the collecting duct which finally leaves the duct as urine
high osmotic pressure
Only the ________ limb of the Loop of Henle is permeable to water. The ________ limb is not.
descending, ascending
Approximately 2/3 of ________ and ______ entering the descending loop get resorbed.
water, NaCl
Only the ________ is equipped with Na/K pumps. The _______ is not.
ascending limb, descending limb
The osmolality of the ________ entering the loop equals the osmolality of _________ (=290 mOsm), but it leaves the loop with a much lower osmolality (220 mOsm)
tubular fluid, blood plasma
The loop of Henle generates ________ osmotic pressures in the medulla which are essential for the resorption of water from the collecting duct.
high interstitial
The sodium conc. of the tubular fluid entering the loop equals the _______ concnetration.
blood sodium concentration
In the ascending limb, _______ is transported from the tubular fluid into the ________.
sodium, interstitium
The ______ fluid leaves the ascending limb with an oncotic pressure ______ than blood.
tubular, lower
Because of higher interstitial pressure _____ diffuses out of descending limb.
water (water-permeable descending limb)
As Na+ can't follow its concentration in the tubular fluid, it ______ along the descending limb, reaching a max at the turning point.
increases
The increase in NA+ in the descending limb triggers a _______ in the ascending limb.
positve feedback cycle
NaCl resorption happens in the ______ limb of the loop of Henle.
ascending
High interstital _____ concentration drives water resorption.
NaCl
hormonal control of water & NaCl resorption happen in the ______ & ______ of the nephron.
DCT & collecting duct
______ equals return of blood
resorption
Iso-osmotic resorption happens in the ______ of the nephron.
proximal tubule
High interstitial ______ concentration drives water resorption.
NaCl
________ & _______ hormones increase the NaCL resorption in the ascending limb.
aldosterone, angiotensin
_______ hormones decrease the NaCL resorption in the ascending limb.
ANF
Most (~2/3)_____ of the filtered into the Bowman’s capsule is immediately resorbed from the ________.
Na+, proximal tubule
Na+ filtered into the Bowman’s capsule is immediately resorbed from the proximal tubule which is also called _________ resorption!.
isotonic
The main source of Cl- (and of Na+!) is ______ in the diet.
cooking salt (NaCl)
_________ hormone is found in the distal tubule & collecting duct
Aldosterone
Aldosterone can increase ____ & _____ resorption but decrease _____ resorption.
NaCl & H20
K+
________ hormone is found in the prox. tubule, thick ascending loop of Henle & dist Tubule
Angiotensin II
Angiotensin II can increase ____ & ____ resorption while decreasing _____ resorption.
NaCl & H2O
K+ resorption
_________ hormone is found in the distal tubule & collecting tubule. It also decreasing NaCl resorption & increases Na excretion.
Atrial natriuretic factor
_________ hormone is found in the distal tubule & collecting tubule. It also increases H20 resorption.
ADH-Antidiuretic hormone
Blood volume must decrease for ______ hormone to be released.
ADH
________ hormone is found in the prox. tubule, thick ascending loop of Henle & dist Tubule. It also causes an increase in CA2+ resorption & decrease in phosphate resorption
Parathyroid hormone
Total Body water is divided into ___% (ECF) & ____ (ICF)
37%, 63%
How is the ECF distributed through out the body?
Total ECF in body- 37%

Interstitial fluid- 27%
Blood plasma- 7%
Transcellular Fluid- 3%
What one mechanism above all others dominates the control of blood volume and extracellular fluid volume?
the effect of blood volume on arterial pressure, &
the effect of arterial pressure on the urinary excretion of sodium and water.
There is an intensive continuous exchange of water and electrolytes between ________ & _________.
blood and extracellular fluid
In order to control blood volume to any given level what must also be controlled at the same time?
extracellular fluid volume
What are the main organic constituents of the body fluids?
Water
Sodium (NaCl)
Potassium
Calcium and phosphate
Magnesium
_________ controls the ECF volume
Aldosterone
_________ hormone controls the ECF osmolarity
Antidiuretic
Aldosterone controls the excretion of ______ & _____.
Na+ and Cl-.
An increase in salt intake increases water intake and the plasma volume _______ . This decreases the Aldosterone blood level and more NaCl and water is excreted. The ________ gets reduced to normal levels.
increases
plasma volume
ADH controls _______.
the excretion of water
If osmolarity deviates more than 1% then less ___ is released and the blood level ______ . This increases excretion of water until the normal osmolarity is achieved again.
ADH, decreases
What happens during high plasma osmolarity?
Preformed water channels allow the resorption of water from the tubular fluid. As a result water excretion decreases.
What happens during low plasma osmolarity?
W/O ADH the Collecting Duct cells are watertight & water is not resorbed & gets excreted.
When the ECF rises more than 30 – 50% above normal, almost all of this excess fluid fills the interstitial spaces and causes _______.
edema
The ________ acts as an important “overflow release valve”, preventing over-filling of the circulatory system
interstitium
Any increase or decrease of
_______ results in increase or decrease of the
ECF.
sodium
______ is the most important extracellular cation for the control of the volume of the ECF
Na
70% of sodium is reabsorbed in the _______ & 20-25% is resorbed in the ______.
proximal tubule
loop of Henle
________ controls final reabsorption in the distal tubule and collecting duct.
Aldosterone
There is a positive correlation of NaCl intake and _______.
hypertension
Any increase in sodium causes increase in ______ volume.
blood
Potassium homeostasis is maintained by ________, _________ & ________.
-Na/K pump
-K+ permeability of the cell membrane
-Na/K antiport
If K+ homeostasis is disturbed it can cause __________ shifts of K+ bt. intracellular & extracellular space.
life-threatening
_______ ion is the main contributor to the membrane potential.
K+
Changes in extracellular K+ concentration can cause ________, ________ & _______.
bradycardia, arrythmia & even heart arrest
The kidney regulate ____ ion metabolism.
K+
What are the most important factors regulating the rate of potassium excretion?
Extracellular K+ concentration &
plasma aldosterone concentration
Only 2% of the K+ are in the ________ space.
extracellular
Disturbance of the________ or ________ results in major changes in the extracellular K+ concentration.
Na+-K+ pump or the membrane permeability
1% decrease in intracellular K+ would cause _____ %increase in extracellular K+.
50%
How does low intracellular pH effect the activity of Na+/K+ pump?
decreases activity
How does high intracellular pH effect the activity of Na+/K+ pump?
increases activity
How does Intracellular acidosis effect K+ in the ECF?
K+ accumulates in the ECF
How does Intracellular alkalosis effect K+ in the ECF?
K+ depletes in the ECF
How does low intracellular pH effect K+, H+ & Cl- in the ECF?
K+-up
H+-up
Cl-up
How does high intracellular pH effect K+, H+ & Cl- in the ECF?
K+-down
H+-down
Cl-down
How does Na/K pump effect urine formation?
It provides the chemical, osmotic & electrical gradients for transport processes.
The distal tubule & proximal collecting duct are impermeable to ______, but are not to water.
urea
The resorption of water causes a high concentration of ______.
urea
Recycling of urea saves _____.
NaCl
The resorption capacity of glucose is _______.
limited
If the glucose conc. in plasma rises too high, the resorption system becomes _______ and glucose appears in the final urine causing _______.
saturated, diabetes mellitus
H+ ions are mainly exchanged for _____ ions.
Na+
In the distal tubule and the collecting duct, _______ cells excrete H+ ions by active transport.
type A
In ______ type A cells change to type B cells and reverse the transport of H+ ions from the lumen back into blood.
alkalosis
90% of bicarbonate are resorbed in the _________.
proximal tubule