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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
voltage gated Ca2+ channel on the T tubule
dihydropyridine receptor
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ channel
ryanodine receptor
Slow fibers are type I or type IIa
type I
Slow fibers (type I):
myosin isoform (ATPase)
oxidative capacity (# of mitochondria)
glycolytic capacity
diameter
myoglobin content
myosin isoform (ATPase): slow
oxidative capacity (# of mitochondria): high
glycolytic capacity: moderate
diameter: moderate
myoglobin content: high (red color)
Fast fibers (type IIa):
myosin isoform (ATPase)
oxidative capacity (# of mitochondria)
glycolytic capacity
diameter
myoglobin content
myosin isoform (ATPase): fast
oxidative capacity (# of mitochondria): Low
glycolytic capacity: high
diameter: large
myoglobin content: low (white
CK is expressed where?
neurons, brain, all muscles and highly energetic tissues
creatine is synthesized where
in liver and transported to muscle and brain
functional of creatine kinase
Add Pi derived from PCr to ADP to generate ATP
In length-tension relationship (isometric contraction), filament overlap affects ______ force output, CT (elastic elements) affects _______ force.
filament overlap: active
CT: passive
Of force-velocity relationship, max power is equal to
1/3 Vmax
Equation:
Power =
work/time = F x V
define satellite cells, where are they found, its function
muscle "stem" cells, source of nuclei for muscle repaire, found outside of the muscle fiber btw basal lamina and sarcolemma.
are satellite cells found in all vertebrate skeletal muscles?
yes
during muscle hypertrophy, what happens to satellite cells?
the cell activate and fuse to existing fibers to produce muscle hypertrophy.
muscle atrophy is what ____% decrease in muscle mass?
30-50% decrease
what happens to fiber diameter and fiber type during muscle atrophy?
decrease of fiber diameter thru apoptosis of nuclei. fiber type adapt.
Define acute model of atrophy (disuse)
30-50% decrease in muscle mass
decreased fiber diameter
modest decrease in specific force
fiber properties shift toward fast
define chronic model of atrophy (aging)
30% decrease in muscle mass
decreased fiber diameter
specific force significantly impaired
loss of fastest, most powerful fiber type (IIb)
2 types of drug to enhance muscle regeneration
1. inhibiting myostatin
2. taking IGF
fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is mutation of what? what effect does it have?
the mutation activates BMP receptor, which drives bone formation in nonskeletal areas. (may explain heterotopic ossification of muscle fibers)
explain heterotopic ossification. when does it happen?
satellite cells differentiate into bone cells in muscle. usually occurs after trauma to muscle.
satellite cells have the potential to differentiate into non muscle fibers depending on the physical location that they are in?
T