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15 Cards in this Set

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Compare fast vs slow pain...
Fast- immediate injury association, sharp

Slow- dull or achy often after an injury
What are the five main types of sensory receptors associated with pain... What allows are characteristics of classifications?
1. Group 1a (Aa)-
2. Group 1b (Aa)
3. Group II (AB)
4. Group III (Ad)
5. Group IV (C)
classification based on:
1. fiber diameter
2. degree of myelination
What are specific characteristics of Group III (Ad) and Group IV (C)?
III- cold sensitive thermoreceptors, fast pain
a.smaller diamater
b. sparse myelination

Group IV (C)- slow "DULL" pain, warm sensitive thermoreceptors (unstained fibers in histo)
- smallest diameter
- no myelination
What types of neurotransmitting groups does Ad (Group III) or C (Group IV) use?
III- EAA (Excitatory amino acids)
IV- Substance P
What is synaptic convergence and what does it produce?
Why is this good or bad for pain recognition?
many synapses converge in the brain which allows for good event detection

This is bad for localizing the pain but good for "knowing" you have pain
Why does the brain interpret visceral pain differently than cutaneous/somatic pain?
What part of the cortex is important for spreading sensory signals?
It has to do with which part of the brain your signals are being sent...

Somatic sensory goes to Area 1 (S1) on cortex but spreads all over... including insular cortex. (spreads signals)
Why does a foolish human still feel pain after cortex has been damaged?
input goes to so many areas it still allows pain signals to be sent by other means
How would I experience a sharp but then a dull achy pain after 5 mins... from a paper cut?
Ad and C fibers innervate the skin so at first the paper cut was sharp pain (Ad) and then dull (C-fibers)
Describe the characteristics of deep pain (afferent fibers, quality, associated with what things)?
Has many C-fibers, few Ad fibers
- Dull, achy pain
- periosteum, ligaments, muscle spasm
If you had extreme sharp pain in your leg only during exercise, but show no swelling, redness, or bruising... what is going on?
- Blood flow to legs is impeded during exercise
- Leads to ischemia and local acidosis and pain receptor activation
(intermittent claudication)
What type of response does the body have to visceral pain... Give an example!
- poorly localized due to C fiber predominance
- Stretch receptors used
- Often referred pain
ex. abdominal pain and fever due to pneumonia
How does your brain adjust usually after you had large amounts of pain to certain area... how does this differ from visceral pain...
Brain "refines" map by eliminating synapses and strengthening more precise ones so localization is better the next time.

Visceral pain, goes by estimated guessing as to where the pain will be.. (pain in neck or left arm instead of heart)
What are the pain receptors called?
Types of sensitivities (4)
nociceptors-
1. generally bare nerve endings
2. sensitive to:
a. thermal and mechanical (same receptor)
b. only thermal
c. only high threshold of mechanical deformity
d. Silent/sleeping- not normally active, but when active= super pain
What are the thermoreceptors (3)?
1. TPR-VR1- heat and capsaicin
2. TPR- VRL1 (heat)
3. TPR-M8 (CMR-1) cold and menthol sensitive
Nociceptors include receptors for (3)...

What are the two types of fibers nociceptors bind to? What type of pain?
1. Substance P
2. Bradykinin
3. ATP

A delta fibers- small, fast sharp pain
C fibers- dull slow pain