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36 Cards in this Set

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Process by which ingested food is transported through digestive system by rhythmic contractions
Motility
Process by which substances released into gastrointestinal lumen aid motility and digestion by providing lubrication and enzymes
Secretion
Process by which substances released into gastrointestinal lumen break down protein, fat and carbohydrate components of ingested food
Digestion
Process by which protein, fat and carbohydrate byproducts are taken up into bloodstream
Absorption
intrinsic need for food
hunger
favored foods for one individual
Appetite
Chewing can be caused by stimulation of specific brain areas as well as by _________-
chewing reflex
CHEWING is innervated by efferents of the _________
trigeminal nerve
chewing reflexively increases ______, ________, _______, & ________secretions
salivary, gastric, pancreatic and biliary
_________ are primarily located just outside the GI tract and secrete into ducts which then empty into GI tract.
Salivary glands
Primary salivation glands are _______, ________, & ________
parotid, submandibular and sublingual
Saliva composed of a serous secretion containing the alpha-amylase _____ for digesting starches and a mucous secretion containing ________ for lubrication and protection
ptyalin
mucin
Parotid glands release ______ secretions
serous
Submandibular and sublingual glands release __________ secretions
both serous and mucous
Buccal glands (located on inside of cheeks) secrete _______
mucus
Saliva pH _____, which helps ptyalin's digestive action
~6.0-7.0
**Saliva release occurs mainly under nervous control from parasympathetic nervous system.
SUPIERIOR and INFERIOR SALIVARY NUCLEI in the brainstem are origin of nervous impulses, conducted through _____ and ______ nerves
facial
glossopharyngeal
**Swallowing can be divided into ______, _______ and ______ phases
voluntary
pharyngeal
esophageal
chewed food is compressed and pushed upward and backward against the palate
voluntary phase
trachea closes, the esophagus opens, and a fast peristaltic wave sweeps food into the upper esophagus
involuntary pharyngeal phase
propulsive movements called peristalsis occur in which a concentric ring of muscle contracts at one point in the tract, then the ring of contraction moves downward, pushing the food bolus ahead of the contraction.
Esophageal stage
Relaxation ahead of _____ is key to the rapid transit of food down the esophagus.
contraction
**Esophageal peristalsis occurs in two phases: ______ and ______.
primary
secondary
continuation of pharyngeal peristalsis and moves from pharynx to stomach in 8-10 s
Primary esophageal peristalsis
waves that occur if primary peristalsis fails to move all food present in the esophagus into the stomach.
secondary esophageal peristalsis
Smooth muscle consists of 5 layers
Serosa
Longitudinal
Circular
Submucosa
Mucosa (Muscularis mucosae)
Smooth muscle functions as ________ ;connected though electrical gap junctions
syncytium
______ mean that impulses can travel rapidly between muscle fibers
Gap junctions
Innervation by _______ provides mainly excitatory drive, while _______& ______ are mostly inhibitory
acetylcholine
norepinephrine and epinephrine
Esophageal musculature (upper third) is striated muscle under the control of ________ and _____ nerves
glossopharyngeal
vagus
Lower two-thirds of esophageal muscle are smooth muscle also under _____ control
vagal
As the peristaltic wave reaches the stomach, relaxation occurs through inhibitory neurons of the __________.
myenteric plexus
The lower esophageal sphincter (gastroesophageal sphincter) consists of 3 cm of smooth muscle beginning at the stomach/esophagus juncture. This sphincter is normally always (tonically) constricted and relaxes only ahead of a food bolus traveling down the esophagus.
Failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax completely results in the condition known as ______.
achalasia
Failure of the LES to remain tonically constricted except during swallowing can result in ________
acid reflux
_________ is an extreme condition characterized by chronic acid reflux, in comparison to the normal minor reflux.
Gastroesophageal disease (GERD)
Complications of GERD can include _____ and _________
ulcers
Barrett’s esophagus (cancer of the esophagus).