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132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what does the reproductive system consist of?
reproductive tract
accessory sex glands
What are the essesntial functions of the female reproductive system?
Production of Ova
Reception of sperm
Transport of sperm and ovum to a common site for union
What is perturition?
Giving Birth
What are the essential functions of the male reproductive system?
Production of sperm
Delivery of sperm to the female
What part of the male reproductive system produces sperm and is located outside of the abdominal cavity?
What is the reproductive function of the vagina?
It connects the uterus to the external environment
How many chromosomes are there in human somatic cells?
How many chromosomes are there in reproductive cells?
What does cell division require?
Division of the nucleus and cytoplasm
Describe Mitosis
-maintains the chromosomal #
-maintains the chromosome combo
-maintains the genetic identity of the chromosomes from the dividing parent cell to the two daughter cells
-produces somatic cells
Describe Meiosis
One chromosome from each pair is inherited in each of four daughter cells reduced from a parent cell. It produces gametes
What are the phases of meiosis?
Meisosis 1
Meiosis 2
How does gametogenesis occur?
What are autosomes?
the 22 chromosome pairs that carry genes for everything but gender
What determines the genetic sex of the individual?
The combination of sex chromosomes
XX = female
XY = male
What determines the gonadal sex?
The genetic sex
What determines sexual differentiation?
The presence or absence of masculinizing determinants in utero.
What is the function of the sex determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY)?
It stimulates production of the H-Y antigen which directs differentiation of gonads into testes
What factors are secreted by the testes?
Mullerian Inhibiting Factor
Which factor promotes development of male external genitalia?
Testosterone -> Dihydrotestosterone
What occurs in the presence of Mullerian inhibiting factor?
Degeneration of Mullerian ducts leads to male penotypic sex
What occurs in the absence of testosterone?
The Wolfian ducts degenerate and undifferentiated external genitalia develop along female lines
What is required for undifferentiated gonadal tissue to develop into male sex organs?
Active signaling by masculinizing signals
Which reproductive physiology is more complex?
What are produced by the ovaries?
The ova, estrogen, and progesterone
What are the functions of estrogen?
1) maturation and maintenance of the female system
2)establishment of female secondary sexual characteristics
3) Maturation and release of teh ova
4) Transport of sperm from vagina to oviduct for fertilization
What is the function of progesterone?
It prepares a suitable environment for nourishing embryo/fetus
What are oogenia?
undifferentiated primordial sex cells
How do oogenia divide?
What is produced by the first meiotic division?
diploid primary oocyte
What makes a primary follicle?
Oogonium surrounded by granulosa cells
When does the primary oocyte complete its first meiotic division?
just before ovulation
When does ovulation occur
About 14 days into the cycle
What forms from the first meiotic division of the primary oocyte?
The secondary oocyte and the first polar body
What is ovulated?
The secondary oocyte
What triggers a second meiotic division?
fertilization by sperm
What is produced from a second meiotic division of the oocyte?
mature haploid ovum and a secondary haploid polar body
In females when does mitotic division of the oogonium occur?
Before birth
When does mitosis stop in female gametogenesis?
By the fifth month of gestation
What are the two phases of the ovarian cycle?
the follicular and the luteal phase
When does the folicular phase occur?
During the first half of the 28 day cylce
What occurs during the folicular phase?
granulosa cells of primary oocyte enlarges, oocyte inside each follicle enlarges, thecal and granulosa cells secrete estrogen
Where does the oocyte go when it is ovulated?
The oviduct
what is the zona pellucida?
A gel-like substance secreted by the granulosa which surrounds the oocyte and seperates it from the granulosa
What happens to follicular cells after ovulation?
They degenerate
When does the luteal phase dominate?
The last 14 days of the cylce
What is the corpus luteum?
Converted follicular cells left behind in the ovary after the ovum is ovulated
What does the corpus luteum secrete?
estrogen increased amounts of progesterone
What happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization does not occur?
It begins to degenerate after 14 days
How is the ovarian cycle regulate?
What triggers the endocrine unis of the ovarian cycle (i.e. the follicle and the corpus luteum)?
Cyclical hormonal changes among the hypothalmus, anterior pituitary, and the ovarian endocrine units themsekves.
What controls gonadal function in females
Anterior pituitary gonadotropic hormones
What are the anterior pituitary gonadotropic hormones?
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)and leutinizing hormone (LH)
What controls FSH and LH?
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone and feedback from gonadal hormones
What happens to FSH during the follicular phase?
it rises
what does a rise in FSH signal?
It signals the follicle to secrete more estrogen
When does LH peak?
Mid cylce
What does LH trigger?
Ovulation and conversion of mature follicle to corpus luteum
What does the corpus luteum secrete?
Progesterone and estrogen
What is the effect of progesterone on LH and FSH?
It inhibits their release
What hapens to the corpus luteum when LH is low?
It degenerates
How does degeneration of the corpus luteum effect progesterone levels?
Progesterone levels start to decline which signals the beginning of a new cycle.
What induces antrum formation
What stimulates proliferation of granulosa cells
FSH and estrogen
What hormone do granulosa cells produce
What is required for estrogen production?
LH and FSH
What inhibits the release of FSH from the hypothalmus and the anterior pituitary?
What happens when FSH declines
growth of all but the most mature follicles stops
What results from the surge in LH?
estrogen production halts, prostaglandins increase, ovulation is induced, and follicles form the corpus luteum
What maintains the corpus luteum?
What prevents a secondary surge in LH?
estrogen and progesterone
What happens to the concentrations of estrogen and progesterone as the corpus luteum degenerates?
Concentrations decline
How does estrogen effect the endrometrium?
It causes it to thicken
What cells convert androgen to estrogen?
granulosa cells stimulated by FSH
What cells convert cholesterol to androges?
thecal cells stimulated by LH
What hormone causes thick mucous to form plugging the cervix?
What hormone produces lots of thin clear mucous from the cervix?
What does GnRH stimulate
hormonal release from the anterior pituitary
When does GnRH increase?
At the onset of puberty
What midlife hypothalmic change is unique to females?
Where is spermatogenesis carried out?
seminiferous tubules
What cells secrete testosterome?
Leydig cells
What are the effects of testosterone?
1)promotion of secondary sexual characteristics in males
2) masculinization of reproductive tract and external genetalia
3)growth and maturation of reproductive system during puberty
4) spermatogenesis and maintenance of male reproductive tract
5) development and maintenance of male libido
6) signals protein anabolism, bone growth and puberty, and closure of epiphyseal plates
What is the spermatogonium?
Undifferentiated diploid cells
What is the spermatozoon?
Differentiated haploid cells
What are the stages of spermatogenesis?
1)mitotic proliferation
3) packaging
What happens to the daughter cells after the initial mitotic division?
One remains to maintain germ cell line and one moves towards the lumen to produce spermatozoa
How many spermatozoa can potentially be formed by one spermatocyte?
What are the 4 elements of spermatids?
head, tail, acrosome, and midpiece
Where do sperm get their energy?
Mitochondria and the midpiece
What is the function of the acrosome?
It carries enzymes needed for the sperm to penetrate and fertilize the ovum
What is contained in the head of the sperm?
Nuclear material (DNA)
Where are sertoli cells located?
In the walls of the seminiferous tubules
What are the finctions f sertoli cells?
1) Selective transport into the lumen of the tubules
2) Nourishment of sperm cells
3) Phagocytisis of cytoplasm extruded during the modeling stage of sperm development
4) secretion of seminigerous tubule fluid into the lumen
5) Secrete androgen binding protein
6) Site of action for spermatogenesis by testosterone and FSH
7) Secrete inhibin
What forms the blood-tetes barrier?
Tight junctions between sertoli cells
What is teh function of the BTB?
products sperm from antibodies, etc.
What happens when seminiferous tubule fluid is secreted into tubule lumens?
Released sperm is flushed into the epididymis
What is essential for sperm production?
A high level of testoserone in the lumen
How does inhibin effect production of FSH?
It feedsback to the anterior pituitary to inhibit FSH
What causes testosterone to be released from the Leydig cell?
What regulates testosterone production?
Testosterone negatively feedsback to the hypothalmus and anterior pituitary
What causes a higher concentration of testosterone in the testes than in the blood?
androgen binding protein
What is essential for mitosis and meiosis of male germ cell lines
What is FSH important for in males?
it is improtant for spermatid remodeling
What is the function of estrogen in males?
spermatogenesis and normal sexuality
Where is estrogen produced in males?
The adrenal cortex produces a small amount and aromatase converts small amounts of testosterone to estrogen
What is the function of tubules in the male reproductive tract?
transport sperm from the testis to outside the body
What is the function of accessory glands in the male reproductive system?
they secrete fluid into the tract for sperm viability and motility
What is the function of the penis?
penetration and deposition of sperm in the female
What is the epididymis?
-attatched to the rear of the testes
-exit route to the duct deferens
-where sperm cells gain ability to move and fertilize
-concentrates sperm as they mature
What is the ductus deferens?
-passes from scortal sac through the inguinal canal into the abdomen
-storage site for concentrated sperm
-unite behind the bladder forming a v
-form an ejaculatory duct after the bladder
-ejaculatory duct joins the urethra in the prostate gland under the bladder
What are semen?
sex gland secretions, sperm, and mucous
What do the sex gland secretions do?
they constitute the bulk of semen, provide support for viability of sperm in reproductive tract, facilitate fertilization
What are the functions of the seminal vesicles?
-supply fructose to nourish ejaculated sperm
-secrete prostaglandins which stimulate smooth muscle contraction, helping move sperm
-provide bulk of semen
-provide precursors for clotting of semen
Where is the prostate gland located?
it complete surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder
What are the functions of the prostate gland?
-secretes alkaline fluid to neutralize acidic vaginal secretions
-provides clotting enzymes and fibrinolysin
How is semen clotted?
clotting enzyme works on fibrinogen to form fibrin, which clots the semen, keeping it in the vagina when the penis is removed
How is the seminal clot broken down?
Where are the bulbourethral glands and what is their function?
-they empty into the urethra just before it enters the penis
-secrete mucous lubrications for intercourse
What are prostaglandins?
locally acting chemical mesengers first discovered in semen, fatty acid derivitives produced in most tissues
What are the effects of prostaglandins?
-promoting sperm transport
-promote bronchodialation
-increasing renal blood flow
-inhibit HCl secretion in the stomach
-enhance cortisol secretion
-promote ovulation
What is fertilization?
the union of male and female gametes
Where does fertilization occur?
In the ampulla - the upper third of the oviduct
How many hours after ovulation can fertilization occur?
24 hours
How long is sperm iable in the female reproductive tract?
5 days
How does sperm travel to the ampulla?
Throught the cervical canal and the uterus, it is helped by smooth muscle contractions of the uterus and antiperistaltic contractions of the oviduct
What is allurin?
It is released by the ovum to attract the sperm to the egg.
What is the function of acrosomal enzymes?
The break down barriers surrounding the ovum
What is ectopic pregnancy?
Pregnancy in the abdomen instead of the uterus
What must the sperm pass through to fertilize the ovum?
The corona radiata and the zona pellucida
What is the receptor to which sperm must bind in order to pass through the zona pellucida?
What prevents more then one sperm from fusing with the ovum?
Chemical messengers released once the first sperm reaches the ovum