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80 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the importance of the cardiovascular system?
1. Deliver O2 and nutrients (AAs, glucose, lipids) to organs and removes CO2 and waste products (and delivers them to kidney, GI tract, and CO2 to lungs)

2. Transport hormones (endocrine section)

3. Regulation of temp. ( cells generate heat, cardio transports heat to skin where it can escape)

4. Transports drugs (all forms and routes into circulation)

5. Regulation of blood pressure.
What are the 3 main components of the circulatory system?
1. Heart

2. Blood vessels

3. Blood
The heart is the ? of the circulatory system.
The blood vessels are the ? ? of the circ. system.
Connecting tubes
List 3 components that make up the blood vessels.
1. Arteries, arterioles

2. Veins, venules

3. Capillaries
What is blood?
Tissue...composed of water, solutes, cells, and formed elements.

It is essentially a transport medium.
The veins are like a ? ? for blood.
Storage system
What are the capillaries?
Exchange vesels for nutrient and CO2 between blood and tissues.
What are the two major systems in the circulatory system's arrangement?
1. Pulmonary circulation

2. Systemic circulation
Where is the blood of the pulmonary circulation carried between?
Blood carried b/n heart and lungs.
What side of the heart is involved in the pulmonary circulation?
Right side of the heart.
Where is the blood of the systemic circulation between?
Blood carried between heart and organ systems.
What side of the heart is involved in systemic circulation?
Typically starts in the left ventricle.
The heart, pulmonary, and systemic circulations are arranged how?
They are arranged in series and blood flows through in sequence.
How are individual vascular beds arranged? How is the total blood volume divided?
They are arranged in parallel. Total blood volume divided among different vascular beds.
The blood flows through the heart, pulmonary, and systemic circ.s (which are arranged in series). What is a downside of this?
Heart failure. If heart goes the blood can't be pumped into the systemic circ. (decreased O2 to tissues)
The systemic components of the body (skin, digestive tract, and muscle) are arranged how?
In parallel.
The body can dynamically adjust blood flow through ? ? ?.
Through the different vascular beds.
Describe the general series of blood flow?
Pulmonary Circulation >

Left heart >

Systemic circulation (skin, digestive tract, muscle) >

Right heart >

Pulmonary circ...over and over again

(p. 2...slide 2)
The arterial system has blood vessels that carry what?
Bl. vessels that carry blood from the heart to the capillaries
The venous system has blood vessels that carry what?
Carry blood back to the heart from the capillaries.
Describe the path of blood flow through the following components? (put in order...start with right atrium)

systemic organs (brain, dig. tract, kidneys, muscles)


left atrium

right atrium

right ventricle

left ventricle

pulmonary artery

pulmonary veins

venae cavae (superior and inferior)
Right Atrium >

Right Ventricle >

Pulmonary artery >

lungs >

pulmonary veins >

left atrium >

left ventricle >

other systemic organs (brain, digestive, kidneys, muscles) >

venae cavae (superior and inferior)>

back to right atrium and on and on...
What does the pulmonary circulation carry to the lungs?
Pulmonary circuation carries DEoxygenated blood (with a high CO2 conc.) thru the lungs for gas exchange.
What does the systemic circ. carry to the tissues of the organ systems?
Systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood to tissues of organ systems.
What arterial blood is O2 poor?
Pulmonary arteries

(this is the exception, every other artery carries O2 rich blood)
What venous blood is O2 rich?
Pulmonary veins

(this is the exception, every other vein carries O2 poor blood)
What is blood pressure?
Force that causes blood flow thru the vessels. Measured in mmHg
What is Pressure (P)?
Force exerted by pumped blood on a vessel wall.
What is Flow (F)?
Flow occurs in response to difference in pressure gradient in vessels (P1 - P2).
What does Flow require?
A pressure gradient (P1 - P2)
What is Resistance (R)?
Opposes blood flow.
What is the eqn for Flow (F)?
F = (P1-P2) / R
Describe the pressure and resistance of the pulmonary circulation?
Low pressure and low resistance in pulmonary circ.
Describe the pressure and resistance of the systemic circulation?
High pressure and high resistance in the systemic circ.
What is pressure created by?
Created by heart's pumping action of Left ventricle.
What is resistance caused by?
RBC friction on vessel walls.
What is resistance influenced by? Explain.

< diameter = < F = > R

> diameter = > F = < R

(F = flow)
Describe the thickness of the right ventricle's muscle compared to the left ventricles?
It is thinner. Not as muscular. B/c < P and < R.
What is blood flow between organs determined by?
1. Arterial pressure (generated by pumping action heart against a systemic vascular resistance)

2. Changes in diameter of blood vessels (via contraction or relaxation) within organ.s
In a normal situation what is the brain always receiving?
Always receives a constant supply of O2
The heart maintains a ? flow of blood.

The heart maintains a UNIdirectional flow of blood b/c series of valves on both sides.
The Right atrioventriicular valve (AV) is aka what?
The left atrioventricular valve (AV)is aka what?
What is regurgitation?
Back flow from dysfunctional valves.

(see slide 1 on p 5 for picture of blood flow through heart)
The heart valves consist of 4 what? How are these further divided?
4 One-way valves.

2 atrioventricular (ensure blood flows from the atria to the ventricles, and not the other way)

2 Semilunar (prevent blood flowing back from the arteries into the ventricles)
The heart's 4 one-way valves ensure what?
Ensure that blood flows in the proper direction. This occurs due to a pressure gradient.
If the pressure is greater behind a valve what happens to it?
It opens
If the pressure is greater in front of a valve what happens?
It closes, and it does not open in the opposite direction.
The heart's valves opening and closing involves ? not ?.
Involves pressure not electrical signals.
The heart's valves opening and closing is a ? process causing a ?.
A mechanical process causing a pressure gradient.
What are the chordae tendineae?
They anchor onto myocardial tissue to ensure the heart's valves stay in place.
What occurs in the following situation:

Atria pressure > Ventricular P
Ventricular Filling occurs.

AV valves open and allow blood to flow from the atria into the ventricles.
What occurs in the following situation:

Atria P < Ventricular P
Ventricular emptying occurs.

AV valves close and prevent blood from flowing backwards.
What are the AV valves aka?
Atrioventricular valves.
Where are the semilunar valves located?
Between the ventricles and arteries.
When do the semilunar valves open?
They open when the ventricular P > than pressures in the pulmonary arteries and aorta.
When do the semilunar valves close?
Close when P in the ventricles is < than pressures in aorta and pulmonary arteries.
The way that the semilunar valves respond to pressure prevents what?
Prevents the blood from flowing backwards.
The heart wall is composed primarily of cardiac muscle fibers arranged in what way?
Spirally arranged.
The heart wall consist of how many layers? Name them.
1. Endocardium

2. Myocardium

3. Epicardium
Describe the endocardium?
Inner layer of epithelium, lines entire circulatory system. It prevents adverse effects of friction on muscle fibers.
Describe the myocardium?
Middle layer of cardiac muscle; BULK of heart wall. It is filled with myocytes in a spiral formation. This gives the heart its wringing action and makes the heart efficient in pumping blood.
Describe the epicardium?
External membrane covering the heart; coronary vessels are located in this layer. This is where the coronary circulation is embedded (the heart's own blood supply).
What is the heart wall surrounded by?
A pericardial sac. This holds the heart in place.
Cardiac muscle fibers are interconnected to form what?
They are interconnected to form branching fibers.
What are intercalated discs?
They are specialized structures that join adjacent cells end to end in the cardiac muscle.
The cardiac muscle is what kind of specialized muscle type?
Striated smooth muscle.
What two kinds of membrane junctions are observed within the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle?
1. Desmosome (Mechanical adherence)

2. Gap junction (Electrical spread)
What is a 'functional syncytia'?
A group of interconnected muscle cells that function electrically and mechanically as a unit.
When the heart contracts it is in a ? manner because the heart functions as a ?.
It is in a synchronous manner b/c the heart functions as a unit/whole.
If one cells is stimulated in cardiac muscle what happens? Why?
If one cell is stimulated then they will all contract because of the arrangement in the striated cardiac muscle.
How is the heart different from skeletal muscles?
Because the cells of the heart are stimulated all together always. Skeletal muscle can stim. one or multiple.
True or False : The cardiovascular system aids in the transfer of heat energy.
True. Blood vasodilates at surface of tissue.
True or False : The cardiovasc. system is comprised of pulmonary and systemic circulations that are in parallel to each other?
False. They are arranged in series.
True or False : The cardiovasc. system transports CO2 from the lungs to tissues within organs.
True or False : The cardiovasc. system transports oxygen from individual cells to the lungs.
True or False : The right ventricle receives blood from the pulmonary veins.
False...from the systemic veins.
T or F : The right ventricle generates higher pressure than the left ventricle during contraction.
False...The left ventricle generates higher pressure.
T or F : The right and left ventricles are in parallel.
T or F : Blood flow within organs is determined by arterial pressure gradient and blood vessel diameter.
True...(P1 - P2) / r