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131 Cards in this Set

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What % of body weight is blood?
8%
What is the average vol of blood in men? Women?
m=5.5;w=5
What is the liquid portion of the blood?
plasma
What are the three types of cellular elements suspended in plasma?
Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
What are erythrocytes?
Red blood cells esp for O2 transport
What are leukocytes?
White blood cells from the immune system's mobile response team
What are platelets?
Cell fragments used in homeostais
How much of the blood is plasma by vol? mass?
55% vol; 6-8% weight
What are the three groups of plama proteins?
Albumins, globulins, fibrinogen
What is albumin?
most abundant plasma proten
How are globulins subdivided?
Alpha, Beta, Gamma
What is the primary role of fibrinogen
Blood clotting
Define hematopoiesis
The formation and development of red and white blood cells from stem cells. Occurs in bone marrow.
What is pluripotent? Example?
Stem cells that can generate multiple subtypes.
What do hematopoietic stem cells become?
erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, mast cells, lymphocytes, and and megakaryocytes
Name the two cell types that arise from hematopoietic stem cells?
Lymphoid or myeloid stem cells
What are stromal cells?
Nonhematopoietic cells in the bone marr, used for support and grown of hematopoietic cells
How do stromal cells direct traffic?
They indluence differentiation by providing a microenvironment consisting of a cellular matrix and either membrane-bound or diffusible cytokinde
What do lymphoid cells become?
Th, Tc, and B cells
What do myeloid cells become?
Granulocytes, eosinophils; monocytes, basil progrenitor, megakaryocyte, thyroid
What are cytokines
Growth factors; membrnae bound OR cellular matrix
What are the three main glycoprotein/cytokines?
colony-stim factors (CSF), eyrthropoietin, interleukin (multiple)
What are RBC's missing?
nucleus, organells, ribosomes
What is the physical shape of an RBC?
biconcave disks increase surface area; flexible membrane
What is hemoglobin?
Only in RBC, RED = oxygenated, BLUE = deoxygenated
What are the two parts of hemoglobin?
Globin and heme
What is a heme?
Iron-containing nonprpotein group, bound to a polypeptide
What is the role of hemoglobin?
Carry O2
What does hemoglobin bind to besides O2?
CO2, H (from H2CO3), CO, NO
What is erythropoiesis?
RBC production (120 day survival)
What organ removes most old RBC from circulation?
Spleen
How many RBC's must be replaced per second?
2-3 million
Where does erythropoiesis occur?
Bone marrow
Describe the erythropoiesis cycle
Kidney notices a drop of O2 capacity, produces erythropoietin. Erythropoietin stimulates RBC production in red bone marrow, more RBC
What is the hypoxia inducible factor?
LOOK ME UP (probably the process by which the kidney's begin to produce more erythropoietin when sensing a dropped metabolism
What is anemia?
below-normal O2 carrying capacity of blood; low hematocrit
What are the causes of anemia?
nutritional, pernicious, aplastic, renal, hemorrhagic, hemolytic
What is polycythemia?
Too many RBC's and elevated hematocrit
What is primary polycythemia
Caused by tumor like condition of bone marry. Erythropoiesis proceeds at uncontrolled rate
What is secondary polychthemia?
Erythoropoietin-induced adaptive mechanism to improve O2 carrying capacity
Who usually develops secondary polycythemia?
People living at high altitudes
What is relative polycythemia?
Relative levels of hematocrit higher due to dehydration
What are leukocytes?
White Blood Cells
What makes up the immune system?
Leukocytes, their derivates, and plasma proteins
What are thrombocytes
platelets
Where do platelets come from?
Broken megakaryocytes--no nuclei, Yes organelles
What's the life of a platelet?
10 days
What removed dead platelets?
Macrophages in the spleen
What is thrombopoietin?
Hormone produced by liver which increased number of megakaryocytes and therefore increases platelet production
What is the purpose of hemostais?
Stop blood loss of a broken blood vessel
What are the three major steps in hemostais?
1. vascular spasm 2. formation of platelet plug 3. blood coagulation (clotting)
What happens during the vascular spasm?
Contraction of the vessel causes sticky collogen to adhere, constriction also strengthes the platelet plug
What happes during the formation of a platelet plug?
1. Platelets aggregate on contact with exposed collogen (induction of adhesion) 2. Platelets release ADP->nearby platelets become sticky and adhere to first layer of platelets
What happens during blood coagulation?
Blood transforms from a liquid to a solid gel
What is prostacyclin?
inhibits platelet formation
What releases prostacyclin? Why? And with what?
intact endothelium cells release it along with NO to prevent adhesion to normal tissue
What happens during clot formation?
Clotting factors reinforce the plug and convert blood into a nonflowing gel
Describe the intrinsic pathway for hemostasis
Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin (7 steps) Hageman factor activated by collagen or foreign surface
Describe the extrinsic pathway for hemostasis
Damaged tissues release thromboplastin (factor III) which activates Factor Xcausing thrombin to convert fibrinogen to fibrin
What are two abnormal forms of blood clotting
A thrombus and and emboli
What is a thrombus?
Abnormal intravascular clot attached to a vessel wall
What is an emboli
Freely floating clots (detached)
What is the purpose of immunity?
Body's ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign materials or abnormal cells
What are the primary activites of the imune system?
Defense though identification and elimination of abnormal or mutant cells
What are examples of inappropriate immune responses?
Allergies and autoimmune diseases
What are the major targets of the immune system?
Bacteria, Virii
How do we define bacteria?
Non-nucleated, single-celled microorganisms--in particular those that cuase disease and damage
How to bacteria cause disease and damage?
Release of enzymes or toxins
What is a virus?
Protein coated DNA or RNA that cannot carry out metabolism or reproduction without invasion of a host cell
What are the 5 effectors of the immune system?
1. Neutrophils 2. Eosinophils 3. Basophils 4. Monocytes 5. Lyphocytes
What are neutrophils?
Highly mobile phatocytes that engulf and destroy unwanted materials
What are eosinophils?
Secret chemicals that fight parasites; involved in allergic reactions
What are basophils?
Release histamine and heparin; involved in allergic reactions
What are monocytes?
Tissue specific leukocytes that become phagocytic macrophages
Which cells are lymphocytes?
B cell, T cell
What are B lymphocytes?
Transfromed plasma cells that secrete ANTIBODIES
What secretes antibodies?
B lymphocytes
What are T lymphocytes?
: Responsible for cell-mediated immunity
What is responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
T cells
Where are lymphocytes produces?
lymphoid colonies in lymphoid tissues
What are lymphoid tissues?
Tissues that produce, store, or process lymphocytes
Where can lymphoid tissues be found?
Bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, adenoids, appendix, Breyer's patches (GAIT)
What is the innate immune system?
Nonspecific system that works immediately when body is exposed to thretening agent.
What are the key words for the innate immune system?
nonspecific, works immediately, nonselective, first line, rapid
What are the primary agents of the innate immune system?
neutrophils, macrophages, several plasma proteins
What are the key words for adaptive/acquired immune system?
specific targets, time to prepare, weapon against most, B & T lymphocytes, memory cells
What are the defense mechanisms of innate immunity?
1. inflammation; 2. interferon; 3. natural killer cells; 4. the complement system
What is inflammation?
nonspecific reponse to tissue injury
What is the goal of inflammation?
tranport phagocytes and plasma proteins to injured area
What does inflammation accomplish?
1. isolate/destroy/inactivate 2. remove debris 3. prepare for subsequent healing and repair
4 steps of inflammation
1. defense by resident tissue macrophages 2. localized vasodilation 3. increased capillary permeability 4. localized edema
Describe leukocyte action in inflammation
wall-off inflamed area, emegration of leucocytes, proliferation, marking using opsonins, leukocyte descrtruction of bacteria
E. Histamines and cytokines dilate local blood vessels and widen the capillary pores. The cytokines also make the blood vessel walls sticky, causing neutrophils and monocytes to attach.
C, B, E, D, A
2. (T/F) NF-Kappa B is a dimeric transcription factor?
True
3. (Y/N) NF-Kappa B is a group of 5 proteins which block the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines?
No, it boosts
4. The IKK complex, held in a quiescent state is the cytoplasm, can be activitated to form NF Kappa B by all but which of the following? TNF alpha; Toll-like receptors, cellular stress (DNA damage); major coffee consumption?
Major Coffee Consumption
5. While NF Kappa B is necessary for the inflammatory response that is usually responsible for healing response of the body, it can lead to the development and progression of the following inflammatory diseases. Name the 6 given in slide 61 of lecture.
1. Cancer, 2. Auto-Immune, 3. Rheumatoid Arthritis, 4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome, 5. Atherosclerosis, 6. Type II diabetes
I. Interleukin 1 (IL-1)
A (3), B(2), C(5), D(2), E(3), F(3), G(1), H(4), I(3)
I. Lactoferrin--protein that binds with Iron, making it unavailable for use by invading bacteria
None, all are correct
9 . There are two types of tissue repair, including
Perfect and non-regenerative
10. (Y/N) Perfect Tissue repair is the replacement of lost cells through cell division of same kind of cells
Yes
11. Non regenerative repair occurs in muscle and nerve tissue and replaces lost cells with _____
Scar tissue
12. Drugs that suppress the inflammatory process include (list)
NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Aspirin ( a COX 2 inhibitor), Ibuprofen and Glucocorticoids (especially helpful because they block all aspects of inflammation).
A. Virus enters cell, B. virus is unable to multiply in newly invaded cells, C. uninvaded cells produce inactive enzymes capable of breaking down viral messenger RNA and of inhibitng protein synthesis, D. Cell releases interferon, E. Virus replicates in invaded cell, F. Virus blocking enzymes are activated, G. Interferon binds with receptors on uninvaded cells, H. Virus enters cell that has been acted upon by interferon
A, E, D, G, C, H, F, B
Y. NK Cells are naturally occurring lymhocyte-like cells
W is incorrect, NK cells are part of the innate immune system
16. (T/F) The complement system is composed of plasma proteins that are produced by the liver and circulate in the blood in their inactive form
True
17. (T/F) The complement system forms Molecule Attach Complexes (MAC) that punch holes in the victim
MAC stands for Membrane Attack Complexes, but is otherwise true.
19. The MAC is a doughnut shaped protein complex comprised of which complement components?
C5, C6, C7, C8, C9
-4. is an effective means of killing microbes without phagocytosing them
True
What are the components of a B-cell Receptor (BCR)
2 Identical antigen-binding sites, 2 Identical Light Chains, 2 Identical Heavy Chains, 3 disulfide linkages( 3 points of the "Y")
What are the components of a T-Cell Receptor (TCR)
1 antigen-binding site, 1 alpha-chain, 1 beta-chain
List the function of a plasma cell
They produce antibodies that can bind a specific kind of antigen
When antibodies enter blood they are known as _____
Gamma globulins or immunoglobulins (Ig)
List the 5 subclasses of antibodies
IgM , IgG, IgE, IgA, IgD
What is the function of IgM
IgM serves as the receptor for antigen attachment, secreted in early stages of plasma cell response
What conditions produce IgG in large amounts?
Following antigen re-exposure
IgE helps protect against what?
Parasitic worms, also a mediator for common allergic responses
This immunoglobulin can be found in secretions of digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary systems; also in milk and tears
IgA
Where is IgD present?
Present on the surface of many B Cells, however the function is uncertain
Antibodies are composed of 2 ____, heavy chains and 2 short ____ chains.
2 long heavy chains and 2 short light chains
Which portion of the antibody determine its functional properties?
The tail portion determines function
Are the antigen-binding fragments (Fab) identical?
Yes, the Fab are identical, but unique between different antibodies
(T/F) The tail (constant) regions within each subclass are identical
True
The antigen-binding fragment is also known as _____
Variable region, and each B-cell has a different Fab
What mechanism is responsible for the different Fab?
VDJ recombination
(T/F) Antibodies must wait for an additional cell in order to hinder antigens
False, abs can physically hinder antigens
Foreign cells are bound by antibodies by __________
Agglutination
List the ways antibodies enhance the activity of other defense systems
Activating compliment system, enhancing phagocytosis, and stimulating killer cells
_________________ can occur if sole antigen-antibody complex is too large to stay in solution
Precipitation
When an antibody binds an invading bacterium, inactive C1 complement can be activated, what processes occur from this activation?
Formation of C5-C9, the membrane attack complex -> forms holes in cell and causes lysis (rupture)
Stimulation of Natural killer (NK) cells are classified as
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity