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58 Cards in this Set

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What drives water movement in cell
Osmotic pressure difference across cell membrane
When you add isotonic solution what happens to cell volume
Stays same
When you add hypotonic solution what happens to cell
Swells
When you add hypertonic solution what happens to cell
Shrinks
Percenntage of body weight water takes
60%
Intercellular fluid is _ %
Extracellular fluid is _ %
40%
20%
Extracellular fluid consists of _ and _
Plasma - 5 %
Interstitial fluid + lymph - 15 %
How do you calculate total body weight from weight
Total body water = 0.6 * body weight
How do you calculate how much of body weight is ECF, ICF
ECF = body weight * 0.2
ICF = body weight * 0.4
How do you calculate plasma volume and interstitial volume
Plasma volume = 5% body weight or 25% ECF
Interstitial volume = 15 % body weight or 75 % ECF
Main component of ECF is _
ICF _
ECF - Na
ICF - K
When you add isotonic IV, what happens to volume and osmolaltity of ECF and ICF
Increases volume of ECF, everything else is same
When you add hypotonic IV, what happens to volume and osmolaltity of ECF and ICF
-Increase ICF and ECF volume
-Decrease EC and IC osmolality
When you add hypertonic IV, what happens to volume and osmolaltity of ECF and ICF
-Increases ECF, decreases ICF volume
-Increases EC and IC osmolality
Arterial blood supply of kidney
Renal artery --> Segmental artery --> Lobar artery --> Interlobar artery --> Arcuate artery --> Interlobular artery --> Afferent arterioles
Kidneys receive _ % of cardiac output
20
Medullary nephron
-higher filtration rate
-long loops of Henle
-capillary network and vasa recta
Superficial nephron
-lower filtration rate
-short loops of Henle
-peritubular capillaries without vasa recta
Describe filtration barrier of kidney
Epithelium --> basement membrane --> fenestrated endothelium
Filtration barrier is negatively charged - small molecules pass, large cannot
Which force is driving for filtration
Pgc - hydrostatic pressure
Which forces oppose filtration
Hydrostatic pressure of tubule - Pt
Colloid osmotic pressure
Net ultrafiltration pressure gradient
difference between pressures that favoring and opposing filtration - Pf
GFR equation
GFR = Kf * Pf = Kf * (Pgc - (Pt + Pb )
Kf = ...
membrane permeability * membrane surface area
Membranous nephropathy - thickening of basement membrane has what effect on Kf
Decreases permeability --> decreases Kf --> decreases GFR
Epithelial cell injury - foot process detachment has what effect on Kf
Increases surface area --> increases Kf --> increase GFR - more protein in urine
GFR in healthy person
120 ml/min
_ doesnt change much across capillary length
Pressure difference
_ increases along length of capillary length
Osmotic colloid pressure
There is net _ in Pf across capillary length
decrease
When you increase Pgc, what happens to pressure difference
Increases
When you increase tubular pressure, what happens to pressure difference
Decreases
When you constrict afferent arteriole, what happens to Pgc and GFR
Decrease Pgc
Decrease GFR
Most common regulator of GFR
Changes in afferent arteriole resistance
Constriction of efferent arteriole does what to Pgc and GFR
Increase Pgc
Increase GFR
What happens to Pgc and GFR when you dilate afferent arteriole
Increase Pgc
Increase GFR
What happens to Pgc and GFR when you dilate efferent arteriole
Decrease Pgc
Decrease GFR
Renal obstruction leads to _ of GFR
Decrease
Why would tubular obstruction decrease GFR
Blockage in tubule increases Pt --> decreases GFR
When you decrease arterial blood pressure, what happens to renal blood flow
Decrease arterial blood flow --> blood flow in kidneys remains constant by vasodilation of afferent arterioles
When you increase arterial blood pressure, what happens to blood flow
Increase arterial BP --> increased blood flow, RBF remains constant by vasoconstriction of afferent arteriole
_ maintains constant arterial BP at glomerulus
Increased resistance
_ maintains constant blood flow to glomerulus
Decreased resistance
2 mechanisms for autoregulation
-Myogenic - smooth muscle changes in ateriole in response to wall tension
-Tubuloglomerular feedback - NaCl concentration at juxtaglomerular cells controls tone of afferent arteriole
Increased NaCl - afferent arteriole constriction --> decrease GFR --> decreased Na to distal nephron
Decreased NaCl --> afferent arteriole dilation--> increased GFR
How does myogenic autoregulatory mechanism work
Increase pressure on arteriole stretches wall and opens Ca channel --> Ca influx causes muscle contraction that offers the pressure increase and maintains RBF and GFR
Describe tubuloglomerular feedback
Juxtaglomerular apparatus allows glomerular vasculature to receive information from distal tubule flow
-Increase in arterial blood pressure increases RBF and GFR
-Increased GFR means more fluid and solutes delivered to distal tubule --> macula densa senses increased NaCl concentration in fluid --> adenosine released to constrict afferent arteriole and prevent further increase in RBF and GFR
-Decreased arterial pressure decreases GFR and RBF
-Decreased GFR means less fluid and solutes delivered to distal tubule --> macula densa senses decreased NaCl concentration in fluid
-Vasodilator is released to dilate afferent arteriole and prevent further decreases in RBF and GFR
Juxtaglomerular apparatus is where
Where distal tubule touches glomerulus
Juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of _ and _
-Macula densa - monitors composition of fluid in tubular lumen
-Granular cells - mainly in afferent arterioles near glomerulus, synthesizes and releases renin
What determines whether particle will be filtered or not
Size and charge of molecule
Excreted = ..
(Filtered + Secreted) - Reabsorbed
Renal clearance
volume of plasma from which substance is removed per unit time

Cx = Ux * V/P = excretion rate/plasma concentration of substance
Excretion rate
Urine concentration of substance * urine flow rate
What percent of inulin is secreted or reabsorbed
0 --> all inulin is filtered and excreted meaning that inulin clearance is a good approximation of GFR
If clearance of new drug > inulin, then _ occured
Secretion
If clearance of new drug < inulin, then _ occured
Reabsorption
Creatinine clearance
-Easier to measure then inulin - most widely used for lab tests
-Filtered and excreted in urine --> produced ~excreted, good approximation for GFR
-Inverse relationship between plasma concentration and GFR --> increased GFR = decreased plasma concentration
If filtered > excreted, _ occurs
reabsorption
If filtered < excreted, _ occurs
secretion