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26 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Length constant is...
the distance that an action potential is going to travel in a neuron.
Length constant increases....
As Rm increases. Because less current leaving and more staying in.
Length constant decrease when...
2 possible ways...
1. Cross sectional area decreases - Neuron diameter decreases(this causes internal resistance to increase)

2. Membrane resistance decreases (demyelation - Length constant decreased).
Capacitance increases when...

Capacitance decreases when...
The thickness decreases (demyelnation).
The thickness increases (mylenation).
How does myelantion impact time constant?
Myelnation - Decreases Time constant...(1) Increases thickness hence, decreases capacitance. (2) Increases cross sectional area hence, decreases membrane resistance.
Capacitance equals to...
Resistance equals..
Length*Resistivity/xsectional area
What is a local potential?
A local potential is unpropagated depolarization. It does not reach threshold to cause an Action potential.
Positive phase
Negative AFterpotential
Positive Afterpotential
Postive phase: Negative beyond resting membrane potential (result of open K channels)

Negative Afterpotential - Temp depolarization after positive phase.

Positive Afterpotential - Hyperpolarization after negative afterpotential.
What are the functions of following transmitters?

TEA, TTX, Conotoxin, Saxitoxin, Tetanus Toxin, Physostigimine
TEA - Blocks K channels
TTX - Blocks Na channel
Conotoxin - Ca2+ channel
Saxitoxin - Na channel
Tetanus - Ach release
Physostigmine - Aetylcholinestrase
Diffusion equals...
(delta X)sqr/2time
Hyperosmotic solution will cause the cell to....

Hypoosmotic solution will cause the cell to...

Describe the sequence of events when light hits Rod cells?
Light >> Activate Rods >> Activate Gt >> Activate PDE >> Inhibit cGMP >> Close Na channels and Na conductance decreases (cell hyperpolarizes)
What is receptor potential?
Transmembrane potential of the sensory cell. Produced by seonsory transducer. Deploarizing event from inward current. Causes AP if threshold is reached (again, in sensory cell).
Energy (for sound) =
P square
Diopter equals...
1/f (focal length)
Explain the transfer of Ach in the pre-synaptic vesicle?
2ndary active transport. ATP used by proton pump to pump H in. Then a contratransport pumps H out and Ach in.

[Ach] in the vesicle is 150mM.
What is Myasthania Gravis
Limited number of post-synaptic receptors.

(Achesterase inhibition for treatment)
What is end-plate potential?

How can it be measured?
Potential at neuromuscular junction which gives rise to an AP. (local, can't propogate, half-way betwenn Ena and Ek)

Measured within 2mm of the axon. After 2mm, only AP is seen.
Give an example of a transmitter used in pre-synaptic inhibition transmission.
GABA - Inhibitory terminal making synapse on excitatory synaptic terminal.

By opening Cl channels.
Describe the difference between EPP, EPSP and Generator potential.

EPSP - CNS Neural junctions
Generation potential - Sensory junctions
What are TRPs? Give some examples.
TRPs are Transient Receptor Potential ion channels. They are involved in sensory generator potential.

Examples -
TRPV1 - Hot temp
TRPM8 - Cold temp and menthol
Describe sequence of events in a sensory neuron.
Stimulus produced genertor potential >> spike discharge frequncy >> resutls in the AP.
Examples of primary active transport...
Ptype - Na/K; K/H; Ca
Vtype - Ca and H
Ftype - H+ transport in mitochondria. ADP to ATP
What are the effects of cAMP?
cAMP opens chloride channels. Hence chloride leaves into lumen. Na and Water follow and this results in diarrhea.
DHP - Dihydropyridine
Activated L-type Ca+2 channels in the T-tubule. Initiates contraction in skeletal muscle.