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### 18 Cards in this Set

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 Plasma Constituents Electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Mg...) Proteins (Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogen) Gases - CO2, O2, N2 Glucose, Cholesterol, Urea Flow Rate Amount of Vol flowing in a time interval Controlled by pressure difference at beginning and end of vessel Also depends on diameter of the vessel (lg=more flow) Inversely proportional to resistance (flow=1/R) Determined by MAP (depends on TPR and CO) Length of Vessel inversely influences Flow Viscosity inversely influences flow ****Take home - A very little amount of constriction on a vessel causes HUGE decreases in Flow Pressure Driving force that is applied to make a fluid flow (pressure difference) High to low Resistance Property of a fluid to resist the impostition of flow (caused by fluid's viscosity) Resistance = 1/radius to the fourth power Resistance is summative if in a serial arrangement, although if R1+R2+R3, R2 is the greatest resistance, then Rtotal = R2 Principle 1 Blood flows according to its pressure gradient MAP=TPR X CO Conductance Conductances are additive in a parallel arrangement Capillary beds have little flow resistance b/c of the great # of capillaries which sum their conductance and therefore decrease/limit resistance Longitudinal Pressure Profile The segment with the highest resistance experiences the greatest percent pressure change ie. Carries 80% of resistance, then sees 80% of pressure change Arterioles Dominant Resistance vessels Transmural Pressure is influenced by: 1. Pumping pressure of the heart (pressure gradient from left to right heart) 2. Compliance of Blood Vessels (elasticity) The more compliant, the more blood storage 3. Hydrostatic Pressure Velocity and Capillaries Blood flow and velocity is slowest here b/c of the greater combined cross section of all capillaries Good for Diffustion Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow Laminar - smooth parallel (energetically most favorable) (most blood flow) Turbulent - Non-parallel movements; FAST, heart beat; determined by velocity, diameter and viscosity Heart circulation Corotid Artery Equation for Flow Flow = 1/R x Delta P 1/R= Conductance P = pressure Flow Resistance Equation R ~ nL/r to the 4 fourth R=resistance n = viscosity L = Length r = radius Combined Resistance in Parallel Arrangement is reversely addiditive; hence it decreases in organs/capillary beds Serial Arrangements Resistance is additive Conductance is inversely additive (hence it decreases) If you constrict just one vessel, you greatly reduce overall flow Serial vs Parallel arrangement Each class of vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins) are arranged serially Within each serial, the venules are arranged in parallel Resistance of Dominant segment If the resistance in the dominant high resistance segment changes, this will change the overall pressure profile in a serial arrangement ie. vasodilation - does not effect upstream artery but does increase P in downstream capillaries (hose) ie. vasoconstriction - decreases P in downstream cappilaries and increases P in upstream Artery