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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Nervous and Endocrine Systems are the body's what?
Regulatory Systems
What does the Nervous System transmit electrical impulses to? (general answer)
Skeletal muscles and exocrine glands
An exocrine gland is a gland with what?
Why could you describe the N.S. as "wired"?
-it sends electrical signals thru distinct, highly organized pathways
-these pathways are CONNECTED
What does the Endocrine System do?
Secretes hormones (chemical messengers) into the circulating blood to distant sites in the body.
-the glands are not connected like N.S., they are scattered throughout the body
Unlike the N.S., the Endocrine system does not require what?
Close proximity
Use one, general term to describe the anatomy of the NS verses the ES?
NS= "wired"

ES= "wireless"
The messenger of the NS and the messenger of the ES?

ES= hormone
The distance of action for the NS verses the ES?
NS= Short

ES= Long via blood
The specificity of the NS verses the ES?
NS= proximity to target

ES= target cell
The body's response speed to signals sent from the NS verses the ES?
NS= Rapid (msec)

ES= Slow (min to hr)
The duration of action for the NS verses the ES?
NS= Brief (msec)

ES= Long (min+)
The major functions of the NS verses the ES?
NS= Rapid, precise fcn

ES= Long duration
Does the NS or ES have influence over other systems?
Yes, both the NS and ES have influence over other systems.
Are the NS and ES totally seperate systems?
No, there is overlap
-they interconnect STRUCTURALLY at times
-they work together FUNCTIONALLY sometimes
-just easier to think of them as distinct
The endocrine system consist of "?" glands?
The glands of the endocrine system are not connected how?
Since the glands of the ES are not connected anatomically how do they transmit their messengers? (general)
-secrete hormones into blood
-hormone travels in blood to signal distant target cells
Neurosecretory neurons are good examples of what?
The overlap between the NS and ES
Neurosecretory neurons release what?
-distributed into blood, to target cells
Give example of hormones released by neurosecretory neurons?
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
-stimulation is nervous although they are released by the ES
What are target cells specific for? How?
Each hormone or neurohormone
-via cellular receptors that uniquely bind to a specific chemical messenger
Is the pineal endocrine, mixed,or uncertain?
uncertain function
Is the hypothalamus just endocrine or mixed?
mixed function
Is the pituitary endocrine or mixed?
solely endocrine
Is the parathyroid endocrine or mixed?
solely endocrine
Is the thyroid endocrine or mixed?
solely endocrine
Is the thymus endocrine or mixed?
mixed function
Is the heart endocrine or mixed?
mixed function
Is the stomach endocrine or mixed?
mixed function
Is the adrenal gland endocrine or mixed?
endocrine only
Is the pancreas endocrine or mixed?
mixed function
Is the Duodenum endocrine or mixed?
mixed function
Is the kidney endocrine or mixed?
mixed function
is the skin endocrine or mixed?
mixed function
Are the ovaries endocrine or mixed?
mixed funtion
Is the placent endocrine or mixed?
mixed function
Are the testes endocrine or mixed?
mixed function
Compared to the NS, the ES mainly controls what?
Activities that require LONGER DURATION
6 overall functions or the ES?
1) Reg.s organic metabolism & H2O/electrolyte balance

2) Induces adaptive changes to deal with stress

3) Promotes smooth, sequential growth and development

4) Controls Reproduction

5) Regulates red blood cell production

6) Regulates circulatory and digestive functions.
What is a Tropic Hormone?
Involved in the ES.
-regulates secretions of another endocrine gland
-general term (there are several tropic hormones)
Give an example of a gland that secretes tropic hormones?
The anterior pituitary gland secrets a lot of these.
Is the endocrine system complex?
One endocrine gland can produce how many different types of hormones?
A single hormone can be produced by how many endocrine glands? How many types of effects can they have?
-can be produced by more than one endocrine gland
-can have more than one type of effect b/c it has more than one target cell
Give and example of another that contributes to the complexity of the ES?
-the rate of a hormone can vary over time
Can the same chemical messenger be a hormone and a NT?
Give an example of a chm messenger that can be a hormone or a NT?
List the 3 chemical classes of hormones?
1) Proteins

2) Amines

3) Steroids
Describe the class of hormones known as proteins? (general)
-peptides, shorter chains
-amino acids in chains of varying lengths
Protein hormones AKA?
Peptide Hormones
Describe Amine Hormones? (general)
-derived from the amino acid TYROSINE
-secreted by the adrenal medulla and thyroid
Describe steroid hormones? (general)
-Cholesterol derivatives
-secreted by the adrenal cortex
Which classes of hormones are hydrophilic (H2O soluble)?

Which classes of hormones are lipophilic (lipid-soluble)(hydrophobic)?

Describe 4 steps of SYNTHESIS for Peptide/Protein Hormones?
1) Have precursors = prehormones

2) Made on ribosomes in ER

3) Converted to prohormones and, finally, active hormones in the golgi complex

4) Golgi complex concentrates active hormone into secretory vesicles.
Describe the STORAGE of peptide/protein hormones?
secretory vesicles pinched off and stored in cytoplasm.
Describe SECRETION of peptide/protein hormones?
released from endocrine cells by exocytosis
-rate is controlled by regulation of release of presynthesized stored hormone
Describe the SYNTHESIS of steroid hormones?
-CHOLESTEROL is the common precursor for ALL STEROID hormones
-series of enzymatic steps modify cholesterol into a different hormone in a SPECIFIC endocrine cell
-this specificity is due to the the enzymes present in the specific organ
Describe the STORAGE of steroid hormones?
-Only the precursor, Cholesterol, is stored
-the lipid-soluble hormone itself is not stored
Describe the SECRETION of steroid hormones?
-once formed, lipid-soluble hormones diffuse thru steroidogenic cell's lipid plasma membrane and enter blood
-once in blood they need a carrier molecule/protein
-once secreted from cell they may still go thru more modifications, may not be in final form
-the rate of secretion is controlled by the rate of synthesis
Lipid-soluble indicates that a hormone can do what?
diffuse into cell easily
-however, in blood, needs a carrier
Describe the SYNTHESIS of amine hormones?
-all are made from the amino acid TYROSINE
Describe the STORAGE of amine hormones?
-they are stored until secreted
Describe the SECRETION of Amine hormones? (general)
-Both endocytosis and exocytosis
How are all hormones transported?
-in the blood
-but not the same way for hydrophilic vs lipophilic
How are hydrophilic hormones transported? What hormones are included in this category?
-they dissolve in the plasma
-includes peptide and catecholamines
How are most lipophilic hormones transported? What hormones are included?
-bound, reversibly, to plasma proteins
-released by plasma proteins when they actively signal target cells
-include thyroid hormone and steroid hormones
How do hormones generally produce their effects?
by altering intracellular proteins
How do hydrophilic hormones produce their effects?
-cannot easily pass thru cell membrane
-bind to receptors on surface of target cell and typically activate 2nd messenger system
-a few alter the permeability of the target cell's membrane.
How do lipophilic hormones produce their effects?
Pass thru target cell membrane and bind to receptors inside the target cell
-doesn't need receptor on surface
-pass thru membrane easily
-receptors are on inside of cell's nucleus
-they activate genes
-results in new protein production
When producing their effects what do hydrophilic hormones typically activate?
2nd-messenger systems
Describe 5 steps of a hydrophilic hormones activation of a 2nd-messenger system?
1) Bind to receptor on target cell

2) Binding activates an intermediate G protein

3) This activates adenyl cyclase, which converts ATP to cyclic AMP(cAMP)

4) cAMP triggers steps that alter the activity of a protein (often an enzyme) that phosphorylates other proteins

5) This produces physiological response in target cell

-multiple proteins are being activated
Does the effect of hydrophilic hormones synthesize proteins?
-just alters preexisting proteins
What is the ultimate effect of a lipophilic hormone?
-stimulates a gene
-promotes protein synthesis
-(brought to cell by carrier proteins)
Describe 4 steps of the effects of lipophilic hormones?
1) Hormone passes thru the target cell membrane

2) Binds with an intracellular receptor that binds to DNA, turning on a gene

3) Gene makes RNA, making a specific protein at the ribosome.

4) this newly synthesized protein changes the physiological response in the target cell
What does HRE stand for?
hormone replacement element
Transcription and Translation occur in the effects of what type of hormone?
lipophilic hormones.
The activation of a protein by a hormone is what?
The concentration of hormone in blood is subject to what?
-the concentration varies according to homeostatic need
The concentration and availability of a hormone for a receptor depend upon what 4 factors?
1) Rate of secretion

2) Transport (ex, extent of binding to plasma proteins, if it is lipophilic)

3) rate of metabolic activation (its metabolism)

4) Rate of removal from blood (its excretion) (can be either metabolic or urinary excretion)
Name three influences on hormone activity? (other than rate of secretion, transport, metabolism, and excretion)
1) Negative feedback

2) Neuroendocrine reflexes

3)Diurnal or circadian rhythm
Describe negative feedback?
-influences hormone activity
-maintains the plasma concentration of a hormone at a needed level
-essentially, you have a set point, gland will strive to hit this set pt and turn off once reached
Describe Neuroendocrine reflexes?
-influences hormone activity
-the neural input to a gland regulates the gland's secretion
Describe Diurnal or Circadian rhythms?
-influences hormone activity
-the secretion rate of many hormones rhythmically fluctuates up and down as a function of time