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42 Cards in this Set

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Where is the pars intermedia?
between the anterior and posterior pituitary
What is the adenohypophysis derived from?
rathkes pouch from pharyngeal epithelium
thyrotropin is also known as what?
TSH
large pituitary tumors that stain with acid dyes are composed of what?
somatotropes because they avidly bind acid dye
What are the Magnocellular neurons?
supraoptic neurons = ADH
paraventricular = oxytocin
What is the signaling pathway of olfactory epithelium to the hypothalmus?
olfactory stimulation goes to amygdaloid nuclei then to hypothalamus
Prolactin is constantly produced unless what is present?
dopamine which is PIH
What effect does GH have on fat stores? what effect does it have on insulin?
1) increases lipolysis
2) decreases insulin action
What hormones does ACTH effect?
increases glucocorticoids and androgens
What is the function of FSH in men?
regulates spermatogenesis
What effect does LH have in men?
stimulates testosterone release
what else is GH called?
somatotropin
What is growth hormones effect on the following:
1) amino acid uptake
2) translation
3) DNA transcription
increases all (DNA transcription occurs after 24 to 48 hours)
Does GH have a quicker effect on protein synthesis or fat mobilization?
protein synthesis
Why does ketosis occur with excessive GH?
mobilzation of fats and production of lot of acetoacetic acid
What effect does GH have on gluconeogenesis? What about insulin release
increases
What condition in terms of glucose does excess GH resemble?
type II diabetes because insulin is increased but action is impaired and there is increased glucose
What happens to growth hormones effects if insulin and glucose are low?
its effects are decreased. This may be to insulins ability to transport amino acids
GH injected into a human will not have the same effect as endogenous GH why?
GH causes liver to release IGF-1 which stimulates bone growth
What is another name for IGF-1?
somatomedan C
Do pygmies produce GH?
yes just not a lot of IGF-1
Does GH attach to any plasma proteins? What about IGF-1?
1) yes but weakly therefore it has a short half life of 20 minutes
2) IGF-1 attaches strongly and therefore has long half life 20 hours
When does GH peak in a 24 hour period?
noon and midnight and during exercise
What conditions cause GH release?
1) starvation
2) hypoglycemia or low fatty acids
3) exercise
4) excitement
5) trauma
6) first 2 hours of deep sleep
What is the normal GH concentration in an adult, child and during starvation?
1) ~2ng/mL
2) 6ng/mL
3) 40-50ng/mL
during acute conditions does decreased protein or glucose have a larger effect on GH level?
glucose acutely and protein chronically
How do estrogen and testosterone impact GH secretion?
increase it
In what stages of deep sleep is GH stimulated?
II an IV
What effect does increased glucose have on GH?
decreases it
What malnutrition state would you expect to have high GH and low protein?
kwashiorkor
What 2 hormones regulate GH?
GHRH and GHIH
what part of the hypothalamus releases GHRH? How? What else is this area responsible for?
1)ventromedial nucleus becuase it is sensitive to blood glucose
2) satiety in hyperglycemic states
What effect do catecholamines, dopamine and serotonin have on GH?
increase it
What intracellular mechanism does GHRH use when it binds cells?
adenylyl cyclase system
What do most cases of dwarfism result from?
panhypopituitarism
What three conditions can result in panhypopituitarism in adulthood?
1) craniopharyngiomas
2) chromophobe tumors
3) thrombosis
4) Sheehans
Giants initially have type II diabetes but later develop? they also later develop what hormonal deficiencies?
1) diabetes mellitus from overuse
2) insulin and panhypopituitarism
What happens to the vertebral column in someone with acromegaly?
kyphosis
ADH activates what intracellular pathway in the collecting tubule cells and what protein is inserted in membrane?
1) adenylyl cyclase
2) aquaporins
High concentrations of ADH have what effect aside form the water reabsorption?
constriction of arterioles
what cells contract around the alveoli of the mammary glands that causes milk secretion via oxytocin stimulation?
myoepithelial cells
what is milk letdown?
oxytocin stimulation to induce milk ejection