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42 Cards in this Set

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PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF the respiratory system
*exchange of gases bet atmosphere and blood
*homeostatic regulation of Ph
*Protection from pathogens and irritating substances
*vocalization
refers to the intracellular reaction of O2 with organic molecules to produce co2, H2o and energy in the form of ATP
cellular respiration
the interchange of gases between the environment and the body's cells.
external respiration
the movement of air into the lungs
inspiration
the movement of air out of the lungs
expiration
the exchange of air between the atmosphere and the lungs
ventilation
the exchange surface of the lungs where O2 and co2 transfer bet air and blood
alveoli
consists of the mouth, nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx
upper resp.tract
trachea , 2 bronchi , branches and the lungs
lower resp. tract
aka throat
pharynx
smallest bronchi or small collapsible passageways with smooth muscle walls
bronchioles
chemical that mixes with the thin fluid lining of the alveoli to ease the expansion of the lungs
surfactant
are thin cells that allow gases to diffuse rapidly
type I alveolar cells
states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sume of the pressures of the individual gases
Dalton's law
the pressure of a single gas
partial pressure
if the volume is reduced by half, the pressure doubles and vice versa
Boyle's law
occurs during voluntary exhalations and when ventialtion exceeds 30-40 breaths per min.
active expiration
normal resting ventilation rate
12-30 breaths per minute
muscles that are called expiratory muscles
int.intercostals and abdominal muscles.
a collapse lung that is unable to function normally
pneumothorax
the ability of the lung to stretch
compliance
CREATED by the thin fluid layer between the alveolar cells and the air
surface tension
pressure within a fluid bubble is a function of two factors: the surface tension of the fluid and the radius of the bubble.
The law of LaPlace
molecules that disrupt cohesive forces between water molecules
surfactants
a paracrine that acts as a powerful bronchoconstrictor
histamine
instrument that measures the vol of air moving with each breath
spirometer
vol of air that moves in a single inspiration or expiration
tidal volume: ave of 500 mL
additional vol you inspire above the tidal vol
inspiratory reserve vol. ave: 3000mL
amount of air exhaled after the end of a normal expiration is...
expiratory reserve vol (ERV): ave: 1100mL
vol of air in the respiratory system after maximal exhalation
residual volume (RV)
ave: 1200mL
sum of two or more lung volumes
capacity
the sume of the inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume and tidal volume
vital capacity
vital capacity plus the residual volume
total lung capacity (TLC)
vol of air moved into and out of the lungs each minute
total pulmonary ventilation
normal ventilation rate
12-20 breaths per minute
space where airways do not exchange gases with the blood
anatomic dead space.
the amount of fresh air that reaches the alveoli each minute
alveolar ventilation
when less fresh air enters the alveioli
hypoventilation
when alveolar ventilation increases above normal levels
hyperventilation
the ability of a stretched lung to resume its normal volume
elastance
which determines resistance to air flow?
diameter of the bronchioles
refers to the metabolic processes of the cell that consume oxygen
cellular respiration