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30 Cards in this Set

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Fluid leaving the capillaries into the interstitial fluid compartment
Filtration
Fluid entering the capillaries from the interstitial fluid compartment
Absorption
_pressure tends to drive fluid out of capillary
Hydrostatic
Hydrostatic pressure higher on arterial or venous end of the capillary?
Arterial
Hydrostatic pressure is higher in upper or lower extremities?
Lower - gravity
Interstitial fluid has negative or positive pressure?
Negative
_pressure tends to draw fluid into capillary
Colloid oncotic (osmotic)
Oncotic pressure higher in capillary or interstitium
Capillary
Difference between net hydrostatic pressure and net oncotic pressure
Net Filtration Pressure
-Clear, colorless fluid
-Similar to plasma but much less protein
Lymph
Lymph system functions
1.Fluid recovery
-absorbs plasma proteins and fluid (2 to 4 L/day) from tissues and returns it to the bloodstream
-lymph obstruction leads to edema
2.Lipid absorption in intestine
3.Immunity
Collect fluid from tissue, fluid enters through _
Lymphatic capillaries

One way flaps
Connect capillaries to nodes
Collecting vessels
Connect nodes to ducts
Lymphatic trunks
Return fluid to circulation
Collecting ducts
Thoracic duct empties into _
L subclavian vein
Right lymphatic duct empties into _
R subclavian vein
Lymph flows - at low pressure and speed or high pressure and speed
Low pressure and speed
Lymph flow is aided by _
Skeletal pump (muscle contraction increases lymphatic return)

Thoracic pump - from abdominal to thoracic cavity
3 causes of intracellular non pitting edema
-Depression of cell metabolism
-Lack of adequate nutrition
-Secondary to inflammation
2 causes of extracellular pitting edema
- Increased capillary pressure
- Decreased plasma proteins
- Increased capillary permeability
- Blockage of lymphatic return
Causes of increased capillary pressure
-Excessive kidney retention of NaCl & H2O (eg. kidney failure, hyperaldosteronism)
-High venous pressure (eg. heart failure)
-Decreased arteriolar resistance (eg. body temp., vasodilator drugs)
Causes of decreased plasma proteins
-Proteinuria (nephrotic syndrome)
-Loss of protein via skin (eg. burns)
-Failure to produce proteins (cirrhosis, malnutrition)
Causes of increased capillary permeability
-Immune reactions (2° to histamine)
-Toxins
-Bacterial infections
-Vitamin deficiency (esp. Vit C)
-Prolonged ischemia
-Burns
Why is blockage of lymphatic return important cause of edema
-Plasma proteins leak into interstitial fluid - if lymphatics are blocked, these cannot be removed.
-Increase in oncotic pressure
-Increase in interstitial fluid volume
Causes of blockage of lymphatic return
-Cancer (often temporary)
-Infections (eg. filaria nematodes)
-Surgery (eg. lymph node removal)
-Congenital lymphatic abnormalities
Reduced capillary pressure causes fluid to be drawn into capillary hence into circulation
Autotransfusion
If person faints and falls to horizontal position - how is blood supply to to brain restored
Gravity restores blood supply to brain and fluid pooled in feet to circulation
Decreased BP triggers baroreflex and production of angiotensin II both stimulate _
Vasoconstriction
Angiotensin, aldosterone (via Na reabsorption) and ADH reduce _
Renal excretion of H2O