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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 layers of GIT?
mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
serosa
Where are Peyer's patches and M Cells located? What portion of the GIT is it typically found?
in the lamina propria of mucosa layer
ileum of small intestine
Mucin is in the ____. What is it's function.
mouth
lubrication
Amylase is in the ____. What is it's function.
mouth and pancreas
carbohydrate digestion
Muramidase is in the ____. What is it's function.
Mouth
attack bacteria cell walls
Lactoferrin is in the ____. What is it's function.
mouth
binds to iron, prevents biofilm formation
Match the stomach gastric juice to it's cell producer.
mucin
pepsinogen
HCl + IF
gastrin
neck cell
chief cell
parietal cell
G cell
What is chyme?
gastric juices and food
What is pancreatic juice?
chyme and pancreatic secretions
What is bile?
bicarbonate and bile salts
What makes the small intestine so good at digestion and transportation?
large surface area due to villi and microvilli
What is the main site of digestion and absorption of the GIT?
small intestine
What prevents infection in the saliva of the mouth
muramidase
lactoferrin
What is the primary water absorber of the GIT?
large intestine
The stomach has a pH or about ____.
2
What protects the rest of the body from the pH in the stomach? What results from a breakdown of this
mucosal lining
peptic ulcer
Materials absorbed in the GIT move to the ____ via the ____, are processed and then move through the ____ into circulation.
liver
hepatic portal vein
hepatic vein
What is secreted from the pancreas that neutralized the acid from the stomach? WHere does this occur?
bicarbonate
duodenum
Where do secretions from the liver and pancrease mix?
Ampula of Vater
from the the common bile duct and pancreatic duct
What regulates liver and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum?
Sphincter of Oddi
Where is bile produced?
liver
Where is bile stored?
gall bladder
What cells take material from the blood and move it to bile for excretion?
hepatocytes
What three organs secrete products into the duodenum?
liver
gall bladder
pancreas
WHat organ does not produce their products in acini?
liver
What makes up bile?
bile salts + bicarbonate
Where is salivary amylase inactivated and why?
stomach
low pH
What is the endpoint of amylase digestion?
maltose and limit dextrins
What are the four disacharides listed?
dextrins
sucrose
lactose
maltose
What is the order of sugar breakdown? Where does each happen and by what enzyme?
sugar
POLYSACHARIDES - amylase in mouth, pancreatic amylase
DISACHARIDES - brush border enzymes in duodenum
MONOSACHARIDES
What can't amylases break down?
branch points
disacharides
In carb absorption, what goes through secondary active transport, and what goes through facilitated transport?
secondary - glucose & galactose
facilitated - fructose
What are the three monosacharides?
glucose
fructose
galactose
What ion drives glucose and galactose transport across a membrane?
2 Na+ for every 1 of either
What is the carrier for glucose and galactose?
Glut2
What is the carrier for fructose absorption?
Glut4
Which monosacharide has a strong gradient across an absorption membrane?
fructose
Which monosacharides have no gradient across an absorption membrane?
glucose
galactose
What side of the membrane is Glut 2, blood or lumen?
blood
Proteins are absorbed through ____ with ____.
secondary active transport
Na+
Pepsinogen comes from ____ cells in what organ.
chief
stomach
HCl comes from ____ cells in what organ?
parietal
stomach
What organ does trypsinogen come from?
pancreas
How does the body solve the lipid solubility problem?
emulsification
Emulsifiers are ____.
amphipathic
Emulsification does what to surface area of fat glubules?
increases it
What happens to pancreatic lipase if colipase is not present?
Bile salts repel the lipase
What does lipase do to triglycerides?
breaks them into a monoglyceride and two fatty acids
No B12 = ____ anemia
pernicious
Which vitamins move with lipids
fat soluble A,D,E,K
What must be present for pancreatic lipase to work?
colipase
What does the triglyceride get packaged into?
chylomicrons
The enteric nervous system has ____ CNS input?
no
In the ENS the ____ deals with secretion and the ____ deals with motality.
submucosal
myenteric
Which reflex has CNS input? Where does it go to get to the ENS?
long reflex pathway
ANS

CNS -> ANS -> ENS
What stimulates cells like pepsinogen, and parietal cells?
gastrin
Increased pH stimulates ____ in the duodenum.
secretin
Increased proteins and fats stimulates ____ in the duodenum.
CCK
What organs secrete bicarbonate?
liver
pancreas
What does secretin stimulate?
liver bile
pancreatic bicarbonate
What does CCK stimulate?
gallbladder contraction
sphincter of oddi relaxation
____ increases the force of intestinal motility.
gastrin
____ decreases the force of intestinal motility.
CCK
secretin
GIP