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110 Cards in this Set

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Does chewing alter rate of digestion and absorbtion?
No. Chewing basically just prevents choking
Describe chewing
It it voluntary and a reflex
What stimulates salivary secretion?
Both SNS and PNS, no hormaona lregulation
Cephalic phase of saliva production
induced by smell or sight of food. The reflex can be conditioned to other cues (Pavlov)
What initiated salivary reflex?
Chemorectors and pressure recptors in the mouth and on the tongue
What cause watery saliva?
stimulation of alpha one receptors
What does increased blood flow to the salivary glands cause?
increased saliva via the PNS
Sjorgren's syndrome
immune disorder. nonfunctioning exocrine glands including salivary glands. Patient must frequently sip water and oral fluoride treatments are prescribed
swallowing mechanism
elevate soft palate
epiglottis moves down
upper esophageal sphincter open so food can pass through
skeletal muscle
upper esophagus is skeletal muscle, middle esophagus is both skeletal and smooth m, the lower esophagus is smooth m.
Describe food moving through upper esophagus
relax the skeletal upper esophagus. Wave of contraction using peristaltic primary and secondary waves to move the bolus down
Describe food moving through lower esophagus
this is a reflex that occurs when bolus reaches the lower esophagus.
Where is the swallowing center?
in the brainstem, the medulla oblongata
Barrier between the stomach and the esophagus
Diaphragm
How does pregnancy cause a hernia?
because the lower esophagus is pushed into the diaphragm
Heartburn
irritaion of the esophagus from HCL from the tummy. Causes erosion of the lower esophagus
parts of the stomach
fundus, body, and antrum
What does the body of the stomach secrete?
mucus, pepsinogen, and HCl
What does the antrum of the stomach secrete?
secretes mucus and pepsinogen
What cells secrete pepsinogen?
Cheif cells
What cells make HCl and intrinsic factor?
parietal cells
flow of bile from liver to SI
Caliculi-bile duct-common
hepatic duct-common bile duct-sphincter of Oddi- duodenum (SI)
ducts in liver where bile is
bile is secreted by liver cells into ducts called bile canaliculi
What is needed for fat absorbion and digestion?
Bile salts
Main phospholipid for fat absorbtion
Lecithin
What is secreted along with bile by the liver?
Bicarbonate and other salts, cholesterol, billirubin, trace metal
What is bile salts made of?
Cholesterol
bilirubin
bile pigment. it is the breakdown of RBCs. It is yello. billirubin is eliminated by the kidneys so pee is yellow, it also causes poo to be brown because it turns brown in the LI
What happens if bile pigmens are retained in the circulation and is not secreated in the proper amount
Jaundice
what happens hormonally if there are a hi number of fatty acids and amino acids in the duodenum?
the duodenum causes an increse in CCK, increase in plasma CCK, causes gall bladder to contract and the sphincter of oddi to relax. It also increases the bile flow into the common bile dut so it increase the bile flow to the duodenum
Enterohepatic circulation of bile salts
bile salts are in duodenum. go to illeum and secondary transport system of bile salts recycle them by a Na+ electronchem gradient. Bile salts travel back to the liver by the hepatic portal vein to by resynthesized in the bile.
Amount of bile salts that is pooped out
5%
when is bile salts stored in the gall bladder?
if person is fasting bile salts are stored in the Gall bladder
When does bile salt go straight to SI?
When eating, bile salts are circulated through the enterohepatic sysem while we eat
What does CCK inhibit?
gastric secretion and motility
What does CCK cause secretion of?
HCO3 secretion by pancrease and liver and causes the relearse of pancreatic enzymes.
What does SI secrete?
Mucus for lubrication and Chloride, sodium, and bicarbonated ions to allow secretion
How does ions in SI aid with secretion?
Cotransport with Cation.
Main avenue of secretion in SI
Chloride channel
How is chyme in SI?
hypertonic
Describe absorbtion in SI
LArge net absorbtion due mainlty due to the transport of sodium with water following by osmosis
Primary function of segmentation motility in SI
mixing with secretions, enzymes from liver and pancrease. It allows bolus to enter apical surface of SI
Describe segmentaion motility in SI
slow waves to break food down and make molecules smaller. It allows mixing of chyme
number of segmentation contractions per minute in the duodenum
12 per min. hi frequency in duodenum
number of segmentation contractions per minute in the ileum
9 contractions per minute.
What causes movement from the pyloric valve to the illeocecal sphincter?
segmentation motililty or slow waves
What is frequency of slow waves different in duodenum and illeum?
becuase the tissue pacemake potential differs so changes amount of action potentials
What initiates myoelectric complex?
motilin initiated
When is motilin increase in the SI?
after a meal is absorbed. it starts in the tummy and moves a few feet squeezing the volume down from the duodenum to the illeum. the series in continuous until the next meal. It sweeps bacteria out of the SI
Gastroileal reflex
segmentaion intensity in the ileum increase during periods of gastric emptying causing the food to move to the LI
What causes the gastroileal reflex?
food going through the pyloric sphincter
Intestino intestinal reflex
cessation of intestinal motility due to large distentions of the small intestine. motility just stops
What causes intestino intestinal reflex?
large distension of intestine, injury to intestinal wall, and various bacterial infections
Function of Li
store and concentrate fecal material before defication
anatomy of LI
illeocecal valve-cecum with appendix-transverse colon- descending colon, sigmoid colon-rectum-anus
What does Li secret?
mucus and fluids containing potassium and bicarbonate
haustra
bumps of LI that is circular muscle
What happens as haustra moves?
semental contractions occur
where does gastroileal reflex occur?
at the illeocecal sphincter
what does LI absorb?
not much but alittle absorbtion of sodium and ater
Flatus
intestinal gas in LI
What composes flatus?
nitogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methatne, and hydrogen sulfide
velocity of segmentation motility in LI
2 per hour this is the contraction of the circular muscle or haustra
Two types of movements in the LI
segmentation contraction and mass movesments
mass movements in LI
follows meal it is a wave of intense contractions in the transverse colon. Due to gastroilleal reflex it clears all of the contents in thetransverse colon
internal anal sphincter
smooth muscle
External anal sphincter
skeletal movement so has voluntary control
Defecation reflex
distention in rectum bc mechanoreceptors causing the urge to poop.
Contract the recturm.
relax the internal anal sph.
contract external anal sph.
increase peristaltic activy in sigmoid conlon.
valsalva maneuer
valsalva maneuver
deep breath, close glottis, contract ab and thoracic muscles
ulcer
erosion of the gastric, esophageal or duodenal surface
what is natural protection against ulcers?
alkaline mucus to provide viscosity for acid, tight junctions to prevent flow of fluid, and rapid epithelial replacement
Endoscope
through mouth to look for ulcers in esophagus and stomach
Bacteria that causes ulcers
Heliobacter pylori
Two types of acid inhibitors
1. histamine blockers
2. block H+/K+ ATPase pump
Histamine blockers
Cimetindine, Tagamet, and Rantidine, Zantac. Block histamine receptors
Type of medications that inhibit the hydrogen-potassium ATPase pump in parietal cells
Omerprozole
Prilosec
Lansoprazole
Prevacid
Esomerprazole
Nexium
Vomiting
Forceful expulsion of contents of stomach and upper intestinal tract through the mouth
Vomiting center
in medulla oblongata
Effects of severe vomitting
dehydration and circulatory problems and metabolic alkalosis
how does severe vomitting cause metabolic alkalosis?
H+ is secreted into the lumen and HCO3 goes into blood via countertransport therefore when you loose material through vomitting it causes an increase in flow of acid production to the lumen to replace the lost H+ so also increase the amount of HCO3 out of basolateral membrance into the blood, increasing alkosis
Gallstones
crystallized cholesteror or precipitated bile pigments
2 places gallstones can lodge
1. lodge in gallbladder
2. lodge in common bile duct
what happens if gallstone lodges in gallbladder?
disrupts the bile flow from the Gall bladder into the SI
What happens if gallstone lodges in teh common bile duct?
At sphincter of Oddi it prevents bile entery of pancreatic enzymes and Gall bladder secretions to the SI
Steatrrhea
gall stone in common bile duct so cant absorb or digest fats. you get fats infecal material. causes diahrea, increase in fa, and increae in tonicity
Jaundice
Gall stone in the bile duct so bile pigments cant be secreted by liver, therfore, you look yellow
Cholecystectomy
remove Gallbladder if gall stone cannot be broken down
lactose intolerance
inability to digest lactose to glucose and galactose because of a decline in the enzyme lactase in the luminal plasma membranes of the small intestine
Can infants break down lactase?
yes always
What happens if adults lose ability to digest lactase?
diahrea bc hypertonic condition in lumen so water comes in with it
constipation
infrequent bowel movements
What does constipation cause?
toxic fecal material bc when hold poo too long too much water gets absorbed and it hurts to poo
What increase frequency or ease of bowel movements?
Laxatives. Use Magnesium and salts to bring H2O into colon to follow tehe salts. Also fiber can be used because it is not digested it just increases water absorbtion
Diarrhea
large frequent watery stools resulting from decreased absorbtion and increased secreation
Cholera
very severe diahrea due to bacteria causing an increase in secretions
Traveler's diarrhea
works on Chloide channels so increasing Cl causes water reabsorbtion too. also causes increase in secretions. Due to bacteria
Effects of severe diahrrea
1. Dehydration and circulatory problems bc secretions from ECF
2. potassium depletion and metabollic acidosis. lose K and HCO3 is secreted into the lumen side so push acid into the blood at the basolateral side
Where is chyme produced?
Stomach
Where does most digestion occur?
SI
Initial secretion of SI
duodenum
Sphincter between stomach and SI
pyloric
Where are enzymes made?
pancrese, stomach, SI
What do parietal cells release?
HCL and intrinsic factor.
only way the body can absorb vitamin B12
intrinsic factor
no B12
pernicious anemia
what causes release of enzymes in pancrease?
CCK
What causes release of HCO3 in pancreatic cells?
secretin
what do pancreatic cells secrete?
enzymes and HCO3
what causes acid production?
Histamine
What produces the driving prssure for the unidirectional movement of blood throughout the body?
the pumping action of the heart.