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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are micelles?
A type of phospholipid with a single layer of phospholipids arranged so that the phosphate/polar heads enclose the lipid/hydrophobic tails.
What are integral proteins?
Proteins that span all the way across the cell membrane. They are tightly bound itno the membrane, removing them requires harsh methods that destroy the membrane's integrity.
What is a reversible reaction?
a chemical reaction that can proceed in both directions
What are isozymes?
enzymes that catalyze the same reaction but under different conditions or different tissues
What is proteolytic activation?
Inactive proteins (synthesized in the cell) are activated when one or more portions of the molecule are chopped off by enzymes. (Protein hormones and enzymes commonly undergo this type of activation).
What is a modulator?
A factor that influences either protein binding or protein activity.
What is up regulation?
The production of new proteins (the body regulates the amount of protein present in cells by increasing protein production)
What is down regulation?
The removal of proteins (the body regulates the amount of protein present in cells by removing proteins)
What is the dissociation contant (k)
It is a quantitative measure of a proteins affinity for a given ligand
What are oxidation-reduction reactions?
Oxidation - molecules that gain hydrogens (H+) or lose electrons (increased positivity).

Reduction - molecules that gain electrons or lose (H+) hydrogens is reduced (increased negativity)
What are addition-substraction-exchange reactions?
An addition reaction adds a functional group to one or more substrates.

A subtraction reactions removes a functional group.

Functional groups are exchanged between or among substrates during exchange reactions.
What is deamination?
Removal of an amino group from an amino acid.
What is feedback inhibition?
A pathway thats end-product inhibits the first step of the pathway (acts as a inhibitory modulator)