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285 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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circulatory system
transport of blood throughout the body's tissues
Respiratory system
exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen; regulation of hyxdrogen ion concentration
digestive system
digestiona nd absorption of organic nutrients, salts, and water
Urinary system
regulation of plasma composition through controlled excretion of salts, water, and organic wastes
musculoskeletal system
support, protection, and mov't of the body; production of blood cells
immune system
defense against foreign invaders; rturn of extracellular fluid to blood; formation of white blood cells
nervous system
regluation and coordination of many activities in the body; detection of changes in the internal and external env'ts; states of consciousness; learning; cognition
circulatory system
transport of blood throughout the body's tissues
endocrine system
regulation and coordination of many activities in the cody, including growth, metabolism, reproduction, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, and others
Respiratory system
exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen; regulation of hyxdrogen ion concentration
digestive system
digestiona nd absorption of organic nutrients, salts, and water
reproductive system
production of sperm; transfer of sperm to female; production of eggs; provision of a nutritive env't for the developing embryo and fetus; nutrition of the infant
integumentary system
protection against injury and dehydration; defense against foreign invaders; regulation of temperature
Urinary system
regulation of plasma composition through controlled excretion of salts, water, and organic wastes
Physiology
the study of how living organisms work
musculoskeletal system
support, protection, and mov't of the body; production of blood cells
immune system
defense against foreign invaders; rturn of extracellular fluid to blood; formation of white blood cells
pathophysiology
some disease states can be viewed as physiology "gone wrong"
nervous system
regluation and coordination of many activities in the body; detection of changes in the internal and external env'ts; states of consciousness; learning; cognition
cell differentiation
the process of transforming an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell
levels of cellular organization
fertilized egg; cell division and growth; cell differentiation; specialized cell types; tissues; funtional unit (nephron); organ (kidney); organ system (urinary system); total organism(human being)
endocrine system
regulation and coordination of many activities in the cody, including growth, metabolism, reproduction, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, and others
muscle cells
specialized to generate the mechanical forces that produce movement; may be attached to bones and produce move't of the limbs or trunk
reproductive system
production of sperm; transfer of sperm to female; production of eggs; provision of a nutritive env't for the developing embryo and fetus; nutrition of the infant
integumentary system
protection against injury and dehydration; defense against foreign invaders; regulation of temperature
Physiology
the study of how living organisms work
pathophysiology
some disease states can be viewed as physiology "gone wrong"
cell differentiation
the process of transforming an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell
levels of cellular organization
fertilized egg; cell division and growth; cell differentiation; specialized cell types; tissues; funtional unit (nephron); organ (kidney); organ system (urinary system); total organism(human being)
muscle cells
specialized to generate the mechanical forces that produce movement; may be attached to bones and produce move't of the limbs or trunk
nerve cells
specialized to initiate and conduct electrical signals, often over long distances; a signal may initiate new electrical signals in other nerve cells, or it may stimulate secretion by a gland cell or contraction of a muscle cell
epithelial cells
specialized for the selective secretion an dabsorption of ions an organic molecules, and for protection; located minly at the surfaces that cover the body of individual organs or live the walls fo various tubular and hollow structures within the body.
basement membrane
epithelial cells rest here on the extracellular protein layer; form s the boundaries btwn compartments and function as selective barriers regulating the exchange of molecules across them
external env't
the env't surrounding the body
Connective Tissue Cells
connect, anchor, and support the structures of the body
tissues
most specialized cells are associated with other cells of a similar kind to form tissues; ex: muscle, nerve, epithelial, and CT tissues
extracellular matrix
consits of a mixture of protien molecules specific for any fiven tissue; function: provides a scaffold for cellular attachments and it transits info to the cells, in the form of chemical messengers, that help regulate their activity, migration, growth and differentiation
fibers
proteins of the extracellular matrix consist of fibers
collagen fibers
ropelike fibers
elastin fibers
rubberband like fibers
organs
composed of four kinds of tissues arranged in various proportions and patterns: sheets, tubes, layers, bundles, strips, and so on
functional units
organs organized in to small, similar subunits
internal env't
fluid surrounding all cells; extracellular fld
homeostasis
relative constancy of internal env't (ph=7.38-7.42)
Homeostatic control system
body's attempt to stay constant
interstitial fld
bathes the cells (11L); lies btwn the cells; 80% of extracellular fld
plasma
malignant part of blood (3L); 20%of extracellular fld
buffer
neutralizes acidity
intracellular fld
the fluid inside the cells
extracellular fld
the fluid present in blood and int he spaces surrounding cells
body fluid compartments
total body water=42 L
extracellular fld (2 locs)
-interstitial fld=11L
-blood plasma=3L
intracellular fld=2/3 of total body water=28L
homeostatic control system
collection of interconnected components that keeps a physical or chemical parameter of internal env't relatively constant within a predetermined rage of values
steady state
a system in which a particular variable is not changing but energy must be added continuously to maintain this variable constant
equilibrium
a particular variable is not changing but not input of energy is required to maintain the constancy
set point/operatin point
steady state temp of the thermoregulatory system
Negative feedback system
an increase or decrease in the variable being regulated brings about responses that tend to move the variable in the direction opposite the direction of the original change; pain or temp stimulus; nervous impulses made here
hormones
chemicals produced in ductless glands
neuroendocrine cells
have a nervous impulse and produce a neurotransmitter that is found in the hypothalamus of the brain (posterior lobe of the pituitary)
Positive feedback
may actually accelerate a process , leading to an "explosive" system
feedforward
regulation anticipates changes in a regulated variable such as internal body temp, improves the speed of the body's homeostatic responses, and minimizes fluctuations in the level of the variable being regulated; it reduces the amt of deviation from the set point
reflex arc
pathway mediating a reflex
stimulus
a detectable change int eh internal or external env't such as a change in the temp, plasma potassium conc, or BP
receptor
detects the env't change
integrating center
when a stimulus acts upon a receptor to produce a signal that is relayed to here
afferent pathway
the pathway traveled by the signal btwn the receptor and the integrating center
effector
a device whose change in activity constitues the overall response of the system
efferent pathway
the pathway along which the info travels
endocrice gland
hormone-secreting gland
local homeostatic responses
are intiated by a change in the external or internal env't (stimulus) and they induce an alteration of cell activity with the net effect of counteracting the stimulus
target cells
cell influenced by a certain hormone
neurotransmitters
where most nerve cells communicate with each other or with effector cells by means of chemical messengers
paracrine agents
chemical messengers involved in local communication btwn cells
autocrine agents
chemical messenger that is secreted into extracellular fld and acts upon cell that secreted it
adaptation
denotes a characteristic that favors survival in specific env'ts
critical period
time during dvp't when a system is most readily influenced by factors, sometimes irreversibly
developmental acclimatization
if an acclimatiztion is induced very early in life, however, at the critical period for dvp't of a structure of response
circadian rhythm
biorythms, happen on a frequency of one per day, can see in a different time zone
entrainment
setting of the actual hours
free running rhythm
a sleep-wake cycle persisted in the complete absence of env'tl clues
phase-shift rhythms
to reset the internal clock
pacemaker
time clock; collection of nerve cells/suprachaismatic nucleus
pineal gland
a gland within the brain that secretes the hormone melatonin
apoptosis
(type of cell death) the ability to self destruct by activation of an instrinsic "cell suicide" program
necrosis
cell death due to injury; the plasma membrane is disrupted, and the cell swells and releases its cytoplasmic material, inducing and inflammatory reponse
pool
occupies a position of central importance in the balance sheet in homeostasis of chemicals
three stages of total-body balance
1)loss exceeds gain, so that the total amt of the substance in teh body is decreasing, and the person is said to be in a neg. balance;
2)gain exceeds loss, so that the total amt of the substance in the body is increasing, and the person is said to be in a pos. balance;
3)gain equals loss, and the person is in stable balance
99% of living cells
C, H, N, O, P, S (6 elements of table)(all have nitrogenous bases)
Energy
capacity to do work
Potential energy
stored energy to use at a later time
Kinetic Energy
energy of motion used immediately
Subatomic Particles
1)protons: atomic wt=1, pos charge
2)neutrons: atomic wt=1, neutral charge
3)electrons: atomic wt=0, neg. charged (1/1837)
atomic number
number of protons in nucleus
uncharge atom
will have equal number of atoms as protons and neutrons
atomic weight
based on number of protons and neutrons in an atom
ex: 6p+6n=12awt
Chemical bond
join atoms or ions into molecules
isotopes
c12(must have 6 neutrons) vs c14 (must have 8 neutrons & raidoactive)
Ions
differece btwn protons and electrons
cations
pos charge, more protons than electrons
anions
neg charge, more electrons than protons
Functional Grps: OH
CH3=methyl
COOH=carboxyl(one dbl bond, 2 single bonds, and all have a bond to connect to grp)
NH2=amino grps, single bonds
PO4=phosphate, pair of molecules
Ionic bond
no sharing of electrons w/ nucleus, strongest bond
Covalent bond
shared electrons
polar covalent bond
unequal sharing of electrons
ex: H2O
nonpolar covalent bond
sharing of electrons
Hydrogen bonds
weak, break easy, in polar molecules, btwn mitrogenous pieces of DNA
interphase
replication of DNA occurs at this time
Active transport
substances that are already present in high concentration inside the cell can continue to enter a cell only by active transport
Nucleotide
composed of a nitrogenous base, a 5 carbon sugar, and a phosphate grp
non protein part of the cell membrane
a double layer of phospholipid molecules whose hydrophobic tails face eachother
simple and facilitated diffusion don't require_______
the expenditure of cellular energy
exocytosis
how a secretory vesicle leaves a cell
positively charged
atoms with more protons than electrons
tRNA
the type of RNA that attaches to a specific amino acid and brings it to their ribosome
glycerol
a molecule that contains 3 hydoxyl groups that con form bonds with fatty acid to form a neutral fat molecule (triacylglycerol)
primary structure of a protein
the polypedtide chain 1st produced at the end of translation represents the primary structure of a protein. If this structure is coiled into an alpha helix the protein now has a 2nd structure
RNA
-contains ribose as its sugar
-is a single strand of nucleotides
-contains uracil instead of thymine
Peptide bond
forms btwn an amino acid grp of one amino acid and a carboxyl grp of an adjacent amino acid
hydolysis
a type of rxn that occurs when H20 is added to a large molecule which then breaks into smaller molecules
intrinsic proteins
span across the plasma membrane and may serve as channel proteins
normal ph of blood
7.38-7.42=slightly basic
BLT
b=1)fats
2)proteins
B & T=carbs
Chemical Rxns
reactants & products
reactants
put them together to form a product
products
reactants that are put together to form something
hydrophilic
dissolves, water loving, polar, soluble in water (salt/sugar)
hydrophobic
doesn't like water, doesn't dissolve in water, (oil)
pH scale
acidity or alkalinity,
-log[H+]
acid
if H+ is greater than OH-
H+ donors
base
if OH- is greater than H+
H+ acceptors
buffers
minimize change in pH, add H+/OH-
-impt in neutralizing stomach acidity as it moves into small intestines (ex: tums)
HCO3
bicarbonate, buffer in body
Concentration gradients
-diffusion and osmosis
-exist if 2 adjacent regions have different concentration particles
Diffusion
solute molecules high to low concentration(in membrane barriers)
osmosis
diffusion of H2O, subset of diffusion of H2O molecules only
Osmotic Pressure
F needed to prevent water mov't, measured by force needed to prevent water from crossing membrane to another concentration level
Organic Macromolecules
Carbs(glucose), monosaccharides, disaccharides
monosaccharides
single sugars (glucose)
disaccharides
double sugars; condensation rxn; water given off whan forming larger sugar (table sugar & sucrose)
Hydrolysis
splitting of water to make a monosaccharide
Polysaccharide
chains, many monosaccharides; multiple sugar, broken down into disaccharides, (glycogen, starch, human equivalent to plants = 100 single sugars)
Glycoproteins
sugars+proteins: in cell membrane
Glycolipids
sugars+lipids: also in cell membrane, combination of sugars and lipids, transport molecules
Lipids
fats, soluble in nonpolar solvents, not soluble in water, can't pass through or dissolve in water,
fat
triacylglycerol, 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol, fatty acids bonded to glyceroln & give off water (a major component in cell membrane(phospholipid))
Saturated Fatty Acid
only single C-C bonds, no doulbe bonds, found in lard & animal fats, unhealthy
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
>= 1 double C=C bond, found in plant oils, healthier from humans
Phospholipids
gycerol+2fattyacids+phophate+choline
Steroids
4 rings, need cholesterol
Proteins
lar molecules, diverse function, common w/ >2000 different kinds in body, diverse functions, enzymes
Amino acids
units of protein, building blocks of proteins, integral or intrinsic span across proteins
Peptide bonds
link amino acids, COOH +NH2(1aa gives up hydoxle-OH-water formed & peptide bond formed)
polypeptide
more than 3
Protein properties
number or sequence of amino acids
Protein structure
levels of organization
Pimary
sequence of amino acids linked together to get a long chain
secondary
conformation, folding chain
tertiary
folding of alpha helix upon itself,
quarternary
2 chains fitted together, 2 different polypeptide chains that join together, (hemoglobin)
Nucleic acids
DNA & RNA
nucleotide
building blocks, each nucleotide is fromed by PO4+C5 sugar+Nbase
Backbone
PO4+C5 sugar; N base varies
neucleotide bases
Purines & Pyrimidines
Purines
Adenine & Guanine for both dna and rna
pyrimidines
DNA:cytosine, thymine (2chains)
RNA:cytosine, uracil(1chain)
Coenzymes
NAD-partly from adenines; most widely used enzyme that collect high energy e-'s and passing them down the chain
deoxyribose
removed one O2 from sugar
ribose
one O2 added
DNA
deoxyribose;thymine;2strands in helix;antiparallel strands(running in diff directions but parallel);DNA+proteins make up chromosomes; most in nucleus, some 5% in mitochondrial DNA outside nucleus
RNA
ribose;Uracil;one strand in helix;one strand;not in chromosomes;most in cytoplasm; rRNA&mRNA
Double Helix
2 nucleic strands, N base "steps"(AT&GC make up steps in ladder)
Base pairing
2 H bonds with A&T;easily broken and formed like a zipper
new cells
come from pre-existing cells, no spontaneous generation of cells
all cells
same fundamental chemistry makeup, macromolecules are predominant in cells other than H2O
Prokaryotic
lack nuclear membrane, membrane bound cells, bacteria=monera kingdom
Eukaryotic
make up protista,fungi,plante,animalia; true nuclear membrane; have membrane bound organelles
cytoplasm
part of cell outside of nucleus
organelles
structures within liquid
metabolism
2cell processes: anabolism & catabolism
anabolism
synthesis fo larger molecules from smaller molecules, give off O2 as a biproduct (ex:protein synthesis)
catabolism
breakdown starch sugars into smaller monosacharides
ribosomes
protein factories; in all living things; procaryotic and eucaryotic cells made up of ribosomal RNA
Gene
products; segment of DNA, code for one polypeptide chain
mRNA
from DNA; ribosomes, u instead of t, complimentary base pairing
exocytosis
proteins in cell membrane; taking molecules in the cell and exporting them; molecules will pass through protein channels to preserve information
enzymes
come from lysosomes and food molecules come from energy that form many molecules (ATP)
Maintaining Cell Env't
ell membrane protects adn allows mov't in/out of cell
organelle membranes
separate from rest of cell w/ a membrane around it
Process of obtaining Energy
food molecules & enzymes; through food molecules and the enzymes that break them down
Energy from Lysosomes
ATP; provide energy that can breakdown large molecules and use for ATP
Nucleus
site DNA; RNA made/synthesized;
DNA
same genetic info every somatic cell; same blueprint for all cells, only use part of it;
Gene
segment of chromosome w/ info 1 polypeptide
Genome
sum of all genes in cell; all together
Chromosome
DNA & Histone; a combination
hydrogen bond
single strand of DNA
mRNA
information, which amino acids added, sequence info taken from DNA to make a sequence
tRNA
brings certain amino acids to ribosomes where there is one type of tRNA for every amino acid
rRNA
add proteins, from ribosomes, complex w/ proteins to form ribosomes
nuclear pores
molecules pass in/out of nucleus through holes in the nuclear membrane
Cytoplasm
between nucleus and cell membrane
precursors
cell function requires supply of macromolecules made from here (small molecules in cytosol)
Endoplasmic Reticulum
rough w/ ribosomes; smooth w/o ribosomes
Rough ER
ribosomes attached to outter reticulum; protein synthesis occurs here
Smooth ER
no ribosomes attached; site of lipid synthesis, many types;
Polypeptides
synthesis in ribosomes, go inside ER and transported where needed throughout the cell
golgi complex
pack in various molecules & vesicles; loading dock of a factory;
Exocytosis
when secretory vesicles carry macromolecules to the cell membrane and fuse with it
endocytosis
phago vs. pinocytosis
phagocytosis
taking in solid particles
pinocytosis
taking in small amounts of liquid
mRNA
information, which amino acids added, sequence info taken from DNA to make a sequence
tRNA
brings certain amino acids to ribosomes where there is one type of tRNA for every amino acid
rRNA
add proteins, from ribosomes, complex w/ proteins to form ribosomes
nuclear pores
molecules pass in/out of nucleus through holes in the nuclear membrane
Cytoplasm
between nucleus and cell membrane
precursors
cell function requires supply of macromolecules made from here (small molecules in cytosol)
Endoplasmic Reticulum
rough w/ ribosomes; smooth w/o ribosomes
Rough ER
ribosomes attached to outter reticulum; protein synthesis occurs here
Smooth ER
no ribosomes attached; site of lipid synthesis, many types;
Polypeptides
synthesis in ribosomes, go inside ER and transported where needed throughout the cell
golgi complex
pack in various molecules & vesicles; loading dock of a factory;
Exocytosis
when secretory vesicles carry macromolecules to the cell membrane and fuse with it; export
endocytosis
phago vs. pinocytosis; import
phagocytosis
taking in solid particles
pinocytosis
taking in small amounts of liquid
Peroxisomes
enzymes use O2 to remove wastes in cell
mitochondria
double membrane; use O2 & food to make useable products and run the cell; ATP; powerhouse of cell
cytoskeleton
3 types of protein fibers; microfil, intermed fil, microtublules
microfil
diameter =7nm; skeletal muscle
intermed fil
diameter=10nm
microtubules
diameter=25nm
cell cycle
time from one mytosis to the next; time of cell life cycle; can be brief if a cancer cell due to rapid dividing
interphase
1st phase, cell growth; protein synthesis; DNA replication; new cells grow larger back to size at end of mitosis
Mitosis
2nd phase, somatic cells division; P.M.A.T.
P.M.A.T.
division of nucleus
P=prophase
M=metaphase
A=anaphase
T=telophase
cancerous cells
form neoplasms (cluster of cancerous cells); interphase short here
Cell membrane
highly selective filter; allows nutrients in and wastes out
Fluid Mosaic Model
most widely accepted theory of membranes today; made up of phospholipids and proteins; double layer(lipid bilayer); integral protein imbedded in layer; 50% mass protein & 50% lipid
Integral protein
will span entire membrane, allows certain molecules to pass thru
Amphipathis molecules
amphibian/ dual life; molecules that have hydrophobic and philic regions w/ hydrophobic fatty acid tails
Phospholipid end
hydrophilic (polar) head & 2 fatty acid tails, hide from water, bilayer inferior, move stabilized by cholesterol
cholesterol
glycolipid that helps stabilize the structure of phospholipids
2 types of molecules that make up cell membranes
phospholipid bilayer & protein
intrinsic
span bilayer, amphipathic w/ hydrophilic; integral, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic regions
extrinsic
don't span the bilayer
carbohydrate
hydophilic, common on external surface; make up 2-10% of mass, but still important; most either glycoproteins or glycolipids; most do complex work w/ other to work;
carbohydrate function
receptors of hormones
passive transport
occurs with concentration gradient, producing less concentrated fld(gas or liquid) by diffusion
osmosis
water molecules diffusing
active transport
occurs against concentration gradient, form more concentrated fld where high concentration existed; require energy to claim form of ATP
Diffusion
movement from one area to a second area by random thermal motion
net flux
from higher area to lower area of concentration
diffused equilibrium
when concentrations become equal in 2 sides of membrane
magnitude of net flux, F, proportional to:
1)conc. difference across membrane
2)suface area of membrane A and small surface area=sm amt
3)permeability constant (kp)
permeability constant, kp,
easy to get through; high percent constant; high to low p.c.
Simple diffusion
no energy needed; substate through w/o Energy protein w/o carrier
facilitated diffusion
substrate requires protein by no energy, easily; requires carrier proteins that require energy but fac dif doesn't require energy
phospholipid bilayer
nonpolar(fatty acid tail) molecules faster
facilitated diffusion of lipid-insoluble substrates
are redily passed through proteins; aided by the presence of proteins; glucose, ammino acids; require membrane proteins, carriers w/ channels, to diffuse across membrane (plasma/cell)
facilitated diffusion differs from simple diffusion by:
-much faster transport of solutes (aided situation)
-saturable process(limit to rate; only small # of proteins so can't go faster)
-highly specific (protein carrier; carries only one thing)
-can be blocked by competitive inhibitors
competitive inhibitors
molecule that might be similar but can block the channel; if it happens it can kill the cells
competitive inhibition
related comp's compete for same binding sites causing the transport of desired molecules
active transport
only thing that requires energy because H active; against conc. gradient, energy; continue as long as energy & solute available; requires carrier proteins
carrier proteins
requires energy for AT but not for simple or passive
Fundamental intracellular control system
use DNA info in transcription of mRNA to amino acid polypeptide (pro.)
genetic code
gene, genome, chromo, DNA complex histones, and transcription and translation
genetic expression
selective use of DNA (diff seg of DNA in each cell, lots not used); most info is suppressed(not used); only certain genes are expressed to form proteins
genetic code
DNA info & sequence of amino acids;
DNA replication
occurs during S phase of interphase where nucleus isn't dividing
transcription
done in DNA
translation
done in RNA
Initiation
1st step in translation; the start codon=AUG near 5' end
elogation
2nd step in translation; 2nd tRNA w/ a.a's come into A-site, anticodon plugs into the codon of mRNA; complimentary base pairs w/ codon
termination
3rd step in translation; when ribosome reaches stop codon, polypeptide breaks off last tRNA & then releases it
Polysome
several ribosomes on same mRNA stand/rivet; each makes 1 mol of same polypeptide
transcription controlled
genes turned on or off, permit/restrict RNA polymerase from attaching to promoter site of DNA segment; in nucleus cell decides if it is going to make cells of that type
Promoter B
is a segment of DNA and is attached to the promoter
Protein A
will transfer to lysosomes to break down the cell
protein pathways
secreted by exocytosis; transfer to lysosomes (lower right); break down the cell; are either exported or transpoted to lysosomes
allosteric modulation
binding of modulator moleclue to regulatory site on allosteric protein changes shape of functional binding site, so changes bind charges & activity of proteins
2 coenzymes
FADH2 & NADH
Rates of enzyme mediated rxns increased by
1)warmer temps in range 0-40C
2)increases substrate conc and enzyme concentration
3)increase enzyme affinity for S by allosteric mod speeds rate active site converts substance to product
coenzyme in glycolysis
NADH
endocrine glands
ductless
Exocrine glands
has duct