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34 Cards in this Set

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T or F: Ach can be either excitatory or inhibitory
T, it is dependent upon the cell it acts upon
Acetylcholine's synthetic reaction occur in the _______ ____ _____ and is catalyzed by the enzyme ___________.
synaptic end bulb, choline acetyltransferase: acetyle CoA + choline = acetylcholine + CoA
Degradation of Ach occurs via the enzyme:
acetylcholinesterase: acetylcholine = acetate + choline
T or F: choline can be re-uptaked back into synaptic terminals to synthesize new Ach
T
Ach is released in three areas:
1) somatic efferent neurons that stimulate skeletal muscles. 2) some visceral efferent neurons of ANS (particularly parasympathetic branch). 3) numerous neurons in CNS
Ach binds to:
cholinergic receptors
The two types of cholinergic receptors:
nicotinic receptors and muscarinic receptors
These receptors are located in cardiac muscle cells, smooth muscles, and glands
muscarinic receptors
These receptros are found on skeletal muscle cells and neurons
Nicotinic receptors
How many subtypes of muscarinic receptors and how many nicotinic?
Muscarinic: 5 (M1 - M5), Nicotinic: 1
What are the two types of biogenic amines?
catecholemines and indolamines
Catecholamines include (3):
norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), and Dopamine (DA)
Norepi and epi are found in _______ and ________ and can be either _______ or ________(especially in sympathetic branch of ANS)
CNS, PNS, excitatory, inhibitory
Dopamine is found predominately in the _______ (particularly the _________ _________) and can be _________ or __________.
CNS, substantia nigra, excitatory, inhibitory
All catecholamines are degraded by the enzymes _______ and __________ or can be reuptaked intact into synaptic end bulbs.
monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)
Norepi and epi bind to ________ receptors, of which there are two types: _________ and __________.
adrenergic, alpha and beta
Dopamine binds to one of ________ different types of __________ receptors.
5, dopaminergic
Indolamines are one of the groups of ________ and include ________ and __________.
biogenic amines, serotonin (5-HT or 5-hydroxytryptophan), histamine
What are the two major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters?
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and Glycine
GABA is found mainly in the:
neurons of the brain
Glycine is found predominately in the:
brainstem and spinal cord
What are the two major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters found mainly in the brain?
Glutamate and Aspartate
What neurotransmitters have analgesic properties "endogenous opiates" when bound to opioid receptors?
The endorphins (beta-endorphin, dynorphin) and enkephalins (metenkephalin, leu-enkephalin), substance P
What are some of the major factors that can alter synaptic transmission?
pH, hypoxia, drugs
Inceases neurotransmitter release:
Diazepam (Valium) : sedative/anti-anxiety agent, works by increasing the release of GABA in neurons of brain
Blocks Neurotransmitter Release:
Botulinum Toxin: produced by clostridium botulinum bacteria, inhibits the release of Ach at NM junctions
Inhibits Neurotransmitter Synthesis:
Sinemet(Carbidopa/Levodopa): used for Parkinson's, L-dopa is converted into dopamine by dopa decarboxylase and Sinemet prevents peripheral conversion by inhibiting enzyme. L-dopa can cross BBB and be converted in brain.
Inhibiting Neurotransmitter Re-Uptake:
Fluoxetine (Prozac): anti-depressant, decreases re-uptake of serotonin in the brain
Inhibits Neurotransmitter Degradation:
Phenelzine (Nardil): anti-depressant, MAO inhibitor. Physostigmine/Neostigmine: used for treatment of myasthenia gravis and inhibits acetylcholinesterase. (MG blocks Ach receptors)
Acts as a Receptor Antagonist:
Homatropine (Homatrin): topical solution for the eyes that induces pupil dilation by blocking Ach receptors which blocks contraction of circular muscles that stimulate pupil constriction i.e. - induces their relaxation
Acts as a Receptor Agonist:
Morphine/Codeine: used as analgesics and bind to endorphin receptors in the brain (i.e.: endorphin receptor agonists)
Albuterol: beta2 agonist for bronchial smooth muscle and acts as bronchodilator
Action potentials carry info in regards to (3):
kind of stimulus, location, and intensity of stimulus
Receptor potentials occur in the "________" of a sequence. The dendrites of various receptors are rich in _______ ________ channels, which open and close based on specific stimuli.
1st neuron, modality gated
Action potentials follow all or none principle, but ________ __________ do not.
receptor potentials