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50 Cards in this Set

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two subdivisions of extracellular fluid
plasma and interstitial fluid
what is the order of highest total body water
Intracellular 40%,67%, interstitial 15%,26%, plasma 5%,7% (Body weight,total body water)
a third, usually minor, subdivision of extracellular compartment?
transcellular compartment
includes: CSF, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid
trancellular compartment ; "third space" contains less than 1% of ECF
a condition where large amounts of fluid are sequestered in peritoneal cavity
ascites; the term "third-spacing" is used
A "fourth" subdivision of ECF
lymph
plasma is seperated from interstitial fluid by
capillary membranes
interstitial fluid is seperated from intracellular fluid by
cell (plasma) membranes
the primary distinction between plasma and interstitial fluid is that:
protein concentration of interstitial fluid is approximately 1/2 that of plasma
what has higher water and solute permeability: cell membranes or capillary membrane
capillary membrane has higher permeability
osmotic pressure depends on the ------- of solute particles in solution, regardless of kind
number
osmotic pressure is that pressure that must be:
applied to the solution in order to prevent the net movement of water from pure water into the solution
Osmotic pressure formula
Van't Hoff equaltion: pi = CRT
volume flow will increase in response to increases in(3):
hydraulic conductivity (measure of membrane's permeability to water), surface area, and osmotic pressure difference
which membranes can support differences in hydrostatic pressure and which cannot?
cell membranes cannot and capillary membranes can.
movement of water and solute due to an applied pressure
filtration or ultrafiltration
the energy source for osmosis
osmotic pressure and/or hydrostatic pressure
the energy source for diffusion
the energy stored in solute concentration difference/gradient = chemical potential energy difference
three principal ways the opening and closing of gates are controlled
voltage gating, chemical (ligand) gating, and modality gating
a primary determinant of membrane permeability
the solute's lipid solubility
biological membranes tend to exclude what two compounds?
hydrophilic and charged compounds
examples of passive transport: and they require energy stored in a -----?
simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, ultrafiltration
- gradient
three forms of active transport:
primary active, secondary active, "bulk" transport
primary active transport example:
Na/K pump
two examples of secondary active transport that uses "second hand" energy stored in form of concentration gradient of one substance
1) co-transport (symport): of glucose with Na from ECF and into ICF of kidney cells, glucose get a "free ride" and

2) counter-transport (antiport) one moves in and one moves out
active transport: "bulk" transport examples
endocytosis: phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis, exocytosis
an abnormal or harsh sound caused by turbulent blood flow
a bruit
used to evaluate pressure sensation of diabetic foot
monofilament
when hydrostatic pressure is greater than osmotic pressure
filtration
three major types of plasma proteins
albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
where are majority of plasma proteins made?
liver
three ways to diagnose diabetes:
1)diabetes symptoms plus casual glucose test >=200.
2)FPG >=126.
3)2hr postload glucose >=200 during OGTT (75g)
classic symptoms of diabetes
polyuria, polydipsia, unexplained weight loss
used for gestational diabetes
OGTT - oral glucose tolerance test
A chemical waste product generated from muscle metabolism. What is it produced from?
Creatinine is waste product removed by kidneys. It is produced from creatine. About 2% of body's creatine is converted to creatinine.
amino acid degradation occurs in the _____ and starts with a process called ________
liver, deamination
deamination requires what set of enzymes?
aminotransferase or transaminase:
aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)
what are the dual purposes of AST and ALT?
deamination of amino acids in liver and synthesize nonessential amino acids in liver hepatocytes
elevated AST (aspartate transaminase) and ALT (alanine transaminase) can indicate:
liver damage
Ultimately, the amine groups cleaved from the _________ are converted into ______(NH3) or ammonium ions (NH4+), which are then converted into _____.
The _______ are responsible for filtering the urea out of the blood.
amino acids, ammonia, urea, kidneys
Normal BUN has a range of 5-26 mg/dL in the adult. Elevated BUN can also occur with:
1) impaired renal function 2) increased protein intake or catabolism 3) dehydration
In humans, ________ ________ is present in all tissues throughout the entire body, but is particularly concentrated in liver, bile duct, kidney, bone, and the placenta.
Alkaline Phosphatase (AP)responsible for removing phosphate groups from many types of molecules, including nucleotides, proteins, and alkaloids
___________ is a waste product generated from the breakdown of heme by macrophages in the liver, spleen and bone marrow.
Bilirubin
what happens to degraded hemoglobin
globin > hydrolyzed to free amino acids. Heme broken into iron and bilirubin. Iron is either stored, reused, or lost from bleeding. Biliverdin > Bilirubin > bile > feces
excess RBC breakdown:
hemolysis and results in high levels of hemoglobin in blood
Normal range for hemoglobin A1c:
(glycated or glycosylated hemoglobin)
For diabetics they should be below 7%. Normal population 4 - 6%. Dramatically reduces their risk levels for diabetic complications. ADA recommends diabetics should be seen every 3 months
recommended for obese DMII
Metformin (Glucophage). enhances uptake of glucose
Angiotensinogen comes from ________? Renin comes from ______?
ACE comes from _______?
Aldosterone comes from _____?
Liver, Kidney, Pulmonary circulation, adrenal cortex of kidney
BP drug of chose for diabetics?
ACE inhibitors
Cholesterol: endogenous and exogenous. _____________ is key component in cholesterol synthesis. Statins block production of ___________. Blocks endogenous cholesterol production. Work best with lifestyle modification.
HMG-CoA reductase, HMG-CoA reductase