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156 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Some research suggests that stress increases the chance for illness by suppressing the ____ system.
immune
Damage to the left temporal lobe is most likely to result in impaired:
a. implicit memory
b. verbal memory
c. nonverbal memory
b. verbal memory
A change in facial expression can actually produce a change in affect. This is predicted by which of the following theories:
a. Cannon-Bard
b. James-Lange
c. Seinfeld-Kramer
b. James-Lange
Since you're laughing, I must feel happy. This statement is most consistent with which theory:
a. Cannon-Bard
b. James-Lange
c. Schacter-Singer
c. Schachter-Singer (social significance)
Inhibition of RNA synthesis at the time of training is most likely to adversely affect:
a. short-term memory
b. intermediate-term memory
c,. long-term memory
c. long-term memory
Shrinkage of the _____ is associated with impaired delayed recall in healthy older adults.
hippocampus
The general adaptation syndrome involves three stages:
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
The left/right hemisphere is more active during positive emotional states.
left
_____ is characterized by anterograde and retrograde amnesia and is associated with chronic alcohol use.
Korsakoff
Hormonal secretion during the prenatal period controls the development of the sex organs and affects later sexual behavior. The _____ gland and the gonads are the primary sources of the sexual hormones.
pituitary
During fetal development, differentiation of the gonads initially depends on the ______ but later is largely the result of normonal exposure.
sex chromosomes
For a genetic male to develop male genitalia, the fetus must be stimulated during the critical period by _____.
androgen
At puberty, an increase in sex hormones influences the emergence of the ____ sex characteristics.
secondary
As one ascends the ______, the sex hormones become increasingly less important as determinants of adult sexual behavior.
phylogenetic scale
Masters and Johnson identified four phases of the human sexual response: ______.
excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
In the last stage, males experience a _____ during which re-stimulation is not possible.
refractory period
While the overall _____ of sexual activity decreases with increasing age, many older people are sexually active, particularly those who were during their youth and middle age.
frequency
As the result of ____ depletion, women experience a shrinkage in uterus and cervix size and a decrease in vaginal lubrication.
estrogen
Older men take longer to achieve an _____ but can maintain it for a longer period of time.
erection
Among people with spinal cored injuries, sexual _____ usually remain relatively unaffected.
interest and appetite
In males, reflecive and/or psychic erections may occur but ____ is less likely.
ejaculation
Sleep is divided into five stages. Stage 1 is characterized by predominance of _____ waves;
alpha
Stage 2 by _____ waves;
Theta
and Stages 3 and 4 by the presence of ____ waves.
delta
The fifth stage is marked by the presence of _____.
REM
Although all dreams do not occur during this stage, they are more _____.
vivid and elaborate
Because the sleeper is both in a deep state of sleep and physiologically active, this stage is also erferred to as ______.
paradoxical
Sleepers typically pass through all five stages every ______ minutes.
90-100
The pattern of sleep varies with age. In infants, REM sleep takes up ____ percent of the total sleep time, while in adults it accounts for only about ____ percent of the sleep period.
50%; 20%
While sleep deprivation is not consistently linked with any specific abnormalities, Stage 4 and REM sleep deprivation are usually followed by a ______ effect.
rebound
For most people, the _____ is dominant for language but there is evidence that the _____ does participate in some language functions.
left hemisphere; right hemisphere
Of the various aspects of language, it appears that _____ language is the only strictly left hemisphere function.
syntactic
Damage to Broca's area produces ____ aphasia.
expressive (motor)
People with this disorder speak slowly and with difficulty and their speech is poorly _____.
articulated
but they usually have little or no difficulty _____ language.
comprehending
Damage to Wernicke's area results in ))))) aphasia.
receptive (sensory)
People with this form of aphasia speak rapidly and effortlessly but their speech is _____ and they cannot comprehend written or spoken language.
devoid of content (meaningless)
Finally, ______ aphasia results from damage to the arcuate fasciculus.
conduction
It is characterized by the presence of _____ (an inability to identify familiar objects by name) and the inability to repeat words or simple phrases.
anomia
Changes in estrogen and progesterone levels ar menopause are mostly likely to have which of the following effects:
a. decreased sexual interest and drive
b. discomfort during sex
c. production of mult orgasms
b.
Alpha waves are characteristic of:
a. an alert, fully awake state
b. an awake, rested state
c. deep sleep
b. an awake, rested state
The presence or absence of sexual arousal during _____ sleep is sometimes used to evaluate the etiology of male impotence. ERections occur during this stage if importence is die to psychological factors but do not occur when the disorder has a physical etiology:
REM
Sleepwalking is most likely to occur during:
a. Stage 1 sleep
b. Stage 4 sleep
c. REM
b. Stage 4
In comparison to young childen, older adults:
a. are more likely to begin teh sleep period with REM sleep
b. spend a greater proportion of the sleep period in Stage 4 sleep
c. spend a smaller proportion of the sleep period in REM
c. spend a smaller proportion of the sleep period in REM
True/False Damage to Broca's area produces receptive aphasia
False
True/False A patient suffering from Wernicke's aphasia is likely to exhibit anomia dn paraphasia
True (paraphasia/word substitution)
While human sexual behaviors are less dependent on sex hormones than the bx of other animals, there is evidence that, for both sexes, sexual interest is related to _____ levels.
androgen
True/False Sexual activity among the elderly is not consistently related to activity in youth or middle age
False
True/jFalse For most people, spinal cord injuries do not substantially impair sexual interest.
True
Closed head injuries usu cause a loss of _____ and a period of post-traumatic .
consciousness; amnesia
Most recovery occurs in the first ____ months, with the recovery of _____ being slower than the recovery of other cognitive functions.
6-9; memory
_____ involves a loss of sensation and movement on one side of the body, while _____ refers to slight or partial paralysis.
Hemiplegia; paresis
______ is an inherited degenerative disease that is characterized by ______ movements and dementia.
Huntington's chorea; choreiform
Parkinson's disease is due to the degeneration of ______ containing cells in the substantia nigra and involves tremor at rest.
dopamine
_____ ("cruel restlessness"), muscular rigidity, and _____ (poverty or slowness in movement.
akathisia; akinesia
_____ is characterized by fatigue and profound weakness of the skeletal muscles, while _____ involves muscle weakness and poor coordination, mood changes, and cognitive impairment.
Myasthenia gravis; multiple sclerosis
Most forms of epilepsy involve three types of symptoms: an _____, a loss of consciousness, and some type of abnormal movement.
aura
Generalized seizures include ____ (grand mal) epilepsy and _____ (petit mal) epilepsy.
tonic-clonic; absence
Jacksonian epilepsy is a type of ______ seizure.
focal
Psychophysiological disorders are characterized by physical symptoms that are caused, maintained, or exacerbated by _____ factors.
emotional/psychological
The cause of bronchia asthma varies from person to person but allergens and _____ are the most common physical precipitants.
infections
_____ is often triggered by anxiety or other emotional state and may be confused with _____ or certain respiratory disorders such as asthma.
hyperventilation syndrome; coronary heart disease
______ the "silent killer" is often asympatomatic but can lead to heart failure, kidney failure, or stroke.
essential hypertension
_____ involves general muscle aches, tenderness, and stiffness.
fibromyalgia
Migraine hadaches are precipitated or aggravated by a broad range of factors including _____ after stress, alcohol, and foods containing tyramine, phenylethylamine, or _____.
relaxation; nitrates
____ migraine does not begin with an aura but may be signaled by gastrointestinal or other symptoms.
Common
PMS usu develops after _____ and lasts until just before or after menstruation begins.
ovulation
According to DSM, while ____ percent of women experience minor premenstrual symptoms, only 3 to 5 percent have Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
75
The pituitary gland is referred to as the _____ because of its influence on other endocrine glands, and it secretes several hormones including ADH.
master gland
Hyposecretion of ADH results is _____.
diabetes insipidus
The primary secretion of the thyroid gland is thyroxine. Too much of this hormone produces _____ , which is characterized by a speeded-up metabolism.
hyperthyroidism
______ body temp, weight loss, agitation, and insomnia.
elevated
IN contrast, too little thyroxine results in _____, which involves a slowed matabolism, weight gain, lowered body temp, depression, lethargy, and impaired ____.
hypothyroidism; memory and concentration
The adrenal cortex secretes cortisol and aldosterone. Hyposecretion of these hormones can result in _____ Disease, while hypersecretion of cortisol causes _____ Disease.
Addison's ; Cushing's
Finally, the pancreas releases insulin, and too much of this hormone results in _____ , which, if untreated, produces a variety of symptoms including weight loss, polydipsia, polyuria, increased susceptibility to infection, and confusion.
diabetes mellitus
Chest pain, parethesia, dizziness, tinnitus, and impaired concentration and memory are most suggestive of:
a. hyperventilation syndrome
b. Cushing's Disease
c. hypoglycemia
a. hyperventilation syndrome
Akathisia involves:
a. complete or near complete loss of movement
b. an inability to sit still
c. loss of motor coordination
b. an inability to sit still
Loss of motor coordination is called:
ataxia
A woman suffering from migraine headaches would be best advised to:
a. avoid certain foods
b. take an assertiveness training class
c. drink a glass of wine once a day
a. avoid certain foods
Grand mal epilepsy is also known as:
a. myoclonic epilepsy
b. absence epilepsy
c. tonic-clonic epilepsy
c. tonic-clonic epilepsy
Closed-head injury most often involves:
a. anterograde amnesia
b. generalized amnesia
c. aphasia
a. anterograde amnesia
Essential hypertension is (more/less) common among females than males and (more/less common among AA than whites.
less;more
(hypersecretion/hyposecretion) of thyroxine produces reduced appetite with weight gain, lowered body temp, depression, and impaired concentration and memory.
hyposecretion
Damage to the spinal cord above the thoracic level is most likely to result in (quadriplegia/paraplegia).
quadriplegia
Parkinson's disease is due to degeneration of dopamine-containing cells in the _____.
substantia nigra
________ begins with an aura that is followed by throbbing pain on one side of the head.
Classic migraine
The antipsychotics (neuroleptics) are used primarily as a tx for ______, especially its ____ symptoms such as disordered thought, delusions, hallucinations, and agitation.
Schizophrenia; positive
Research on the effects of teh antipsychotic drugs provides support for the dopamine hypothesis, which attributes Schizophrenia to _____ at dopamine receptors.
overactivity
The antipsychotics are associated with several undesirable side effects including _____ effects (e.g., dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision) and extrapyramidal side effects.
anticholinergic
Of the latter, ______ is the most serious side effect and can be irreversible.
tardive dyskinesia
Its symptoms resemble those of ______ and include involuntary, thythmic movements of the jaw, lips, and extremities.
Huntington's chorea
_____, the most potent of the antipsychotic drugs, is associated with the most severe extrapyramidal side effects.
Haloperidol
The antidepressants include the tricyclics (TCAs), SSRIs, and MAOIs. The TCAs are most effective for alleviating the _______ symtoms of depression.
vegetative, somatic
They exert their effects by blocking the reuptake of _____, serotonin, and/or dopamine.
norepinephrine
Their effects on the former support the ____ hypothesis.
Catecholamine
Undesirable side effects include _____ effects (e.g., blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation), weight gain, drowsiness, and confusion.
anticholinergic
These drugs are also _____ and can cause hypertension, extreme hypotension, and tachycardia.
cardiotoxic
The SSRIsare less cardiotoxic than the TCAs and have a more ____.
rapid onset
Since its introduction in the US in 1987, ____ has become the most frequently-prescribed antidepressant.
Prozac
The SSRIs exert their effects by blocking the reuptake of ______.
serotonin
The MAOIs are most effective for _____ depressions.
non-endogenous and atypical
The most dangerous side effect is ______, which can occur when an MAOI is taken in conjunction with certain drugs or foods containing _____.
hypertensive crisis; tyramine
Finally, lithium has been the tx of choice for _____.
Bipolar Disorder
To avoid toxicity when taking this drug, patients must be careful to avoid fluctuations in their _____ intake and void caffeine, alcohol, and other _____.
salt; diuretics
Early signs of toxicity include diarrhea, nausea, slurred speech, confusion, and loss of _____.
coordination
In recent years, carbamazepine, an _____ drug, has been found to have similar effects as lithium.
anticonvulsant
The sedative-hypnotics are generalized _____ depressants.
CNS
The effects of the sedative-hypnotics are synergistic, and they also produce cross-____.
tolerance
The barbiturates are now rarely prescribed because of their adverse effects. Their use causes a decrease in ____ sleep, and abrupt cessation can produce a decrease in ______ sleep, and abrupt cessation can produce a ____ and nightmares.
REM; REM rebound
Chronic use of a barbiturate produces tolerance and physical and psychological _____ and withdrawal symptoms can be severe.
dependence
The anxiolytics are the most widely used psychiatric drug. They are generally more effective for reducing _____ than panic symptoms.
anticipatory anxiety
They are associated with several adverse side effects including drawsiness, lethargy, slurred speech, and _____ (lack of muscle coordination).
ataxia
The euphoric feelings produced by the anxiolytics results in _____ dependence, and chronic use can result in the development of _____ and physical dependence.
psychological; tolerance
Withdrawal can produce rebbound _____.
hyperexcitability
The narcotic-analgesics have both sedative and analgesic effects. Research on the effects of these drugs led to the discovery of natural _____ receptors in the spinal cord and brain.
opiod
The initial effect of a narcotic-analgesic is a short-lived ______, which is often followed by feelings of tranquility, drawsiness, and impaired attention.
sense of euphoria
Chronic use results in ______ and ______ dependence.
tolerance; psychological and physical
The synthetic narcotic-analgesic, _____ is often used in heroin detox program.
methadone
Amphetamines are currently used to treat ____ and ADHD.
narcolepsy
wile methylphenidate can result in _____ suppression and can have a negative effect on cognitive performance.
growth
Occasional _____ can help minimize the drug's negative side effects.
drug holidays
A person taking an _____ should avoid aged cheeses, wine, and avocados.
MAOI
Occasional drug holidays can help alleviate growth suppression when a child is taking ______.
methylphenadate
Administration of a _____ agonist can help allevate the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia.
GABA
The catecholamine hypothesis attributes depression to:
a. excessive epinephrine
b. deficient norepinephrine
c. excessive serotonin
b. deficient norepinephrine
A person taking lithium is most likely to exhibit which of the following side effects:
a. fine hand tremor and nausea

b. lethargy and akathisia
c. dysphoria and insomnia
a. fine hand tremor and nausea
According to the dopamine hypothesis, ____ is related to overactivity at dopamine receptors:
a. mania
b. depression
c. schizophrenia
c. schizophrenia
A patient taking a TCA would most likely experience which of the following side effects:
a. dry mouth, urinary retention, weight gain
b. gastrointestinal probs, headache, weight loss
c. coarse tremor, irritability, nystagmus
a. dry mouth, urinary retention, weight gain
Tardive dyskinesia, a side effect of the antipsychotics, is most similar to:
a. Huntington's chorea
b. multiple sclerosis
c. myasthenia gravis
a. Huntington's chorea
A person taking lithium should be careful to avoid:
a. foods containing tyramine
b. fluctuations in salt intake
c. dairy products
b. fluctuations in salt intake
When prescribing a TCA, an important consideration is:
a. the individual's diet
b. the duration of the disorder
c. the individual's risk for suicide
c. the individual's risk for suicide
During his first visit to your office, a middle-aged man exhibits slurred speech, a lack of coordination, and tremors. If his symptoms are due to brain damage, the most likely location of the damage is:
a. hippocampus
b. cerebellum
c. parietal lobe
d. medulla
b. cerebellum - associated with coordination, posture, and balance, and damage can result in ataxia
Circadian thythms are controlled by the
a. hypothalamus
b. caudate nucleus
c. basal ganglia
d. hippocampus
a. The hypothalamus is always a good guess since it controls a variety of functions. It is actually the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which is part of the hypothalamus, that is believed to control circadian thythms.
Parkinson's disease is believed to be caused by _____ at caudate synapses:
a. insufficient dopamine
b. insufficient epinephrine
c. excessive GABA
d. excessive ACh
a. Dopamine is associated with schizophrenia and in the regulation of movement. Its lack is believed to underlie the muscle rigidity of Parkinson's disease.
Damage to the prefrontal cortex is most likely to result in deficits in:
a. visual processing
b. judgment and planning
c. facial recognition
d. long-term memory
b. The prefrontal cortex is involved in emotion and executive cognitive functions including judgment, planning, and insight
In comparison to the tricyclics, fluoxetine adn other SSRIs:
a. are more likely to cause cognitive impairment
b. are less cardiotoxic
c. have a slower onset of effects
d. are more effective for mania
b. are less cardiotoxic -
Long-term potentiation is believed to underlie:
a. sleep
b. emotions
c. motor coordination
d. learning and memory
d. learning and memory - long-term potentiation has been found in the hippocampus, which governs memory consolidation
A young woman says she always feels cold, that she is frequently depressed and has trouble concentrating, and that she is lethargic and has lost interest in sex. Which of the following endocrine disorders is suggested by these symptoms:
a. diabetes insipidus
b. hypothyroidism
c. Cushing's disease
d. Grave's disease
b. hypothyroidism - produced by hyposecretion of the hormone thyroxine by the thalamus.
Following a head trauma, dx of postconcussional syndrome is most suggested by presence of which of the following:
a. retrograde amnesia, confusion, muscle weakness
b. fatigue, headache, irritability
c. insomnia, tremor, mania
d. agitation, blurred vision, tinnitus
b. fatigue, headache, irritability
As part of the assessment of a brain-injured patient, you evaluate her comprehension of spoken words, phrases, and sentences and ability to identify familiar objects. You are most likely trying to determine if the patient has:
a. Wernicke's aphasia
b. Broca's aphasia
c. apraxia
d. alexia
a. Wernicke's aphasia - associated with receptive aphasia, which involves an inability to comprehend/receive written and spoken language
An adult with damage to his hippocampus can be expected to:
a. display increased aggressiveness adn rage
b. forget events that occur after the damage
c. have trouble falling asleep
d. retrieve memories from childhood
b. forget events that occur after the damage - difficulties in transferring info from short-term to long-term memory
Tardive dyskinesia is most associated with which of the following drugs:
a. fluoxetine
b. lithium
c. benzodiazepine
d. phenothiazine
d. phenothiazine - Tardive dyskinesia, an extrapyramidal effect
Alpha waves predominate in:
a. alert wakefulness
b. relaxed wakefulness
c. deep sleep
d. REM sleep
b. relaxed wakefulness
Lesions to the right hemisphere would be most likely to produce:
a. ataxia
b. aphasia
c. catastrophic reactions
d. indifference or euphoria
d. indifference or euphoria - the right hemisphere appears to govern negative emotions
A feeling of discomfort involving an inability to sit still is referred to as:
a. akinesia
b. dyskinesia
c. akathisia
d. dystonia
c. akathisia - aisde effect of antipsychotic drugs and a symptom of Parkinson's disease
Selye's "general adaptation syndrome" involves the following phases:
a. alarm, resistance, exhaustion
b. denial, alarm, resolution
c. alarm, resistance, resolution
d. dissociation, realization, acceptance
a. alarm, resistance, exhaustion
A woman exhibits "dressing apraxia" confuses her left and right sides, and doesn't comb the hair on the left side of her head. Which area of her brain is most likely to be damaged:
a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. temporal lobe
d. occipital lobe
b. parietal lobe - apraxia and contralateral neglect are associated with damage to the parietal lobe
An elderly man is prescribed lithium for Bipolar Disorder. In terms of side effects, the man can most likely expect which of the following:
a. shuffling gait
b. impaired abstract reasoning
c. malaise
d. fine hand tremor
d. fine hand tremor
Tardive dyskinesia:
a. is alleviated by L-dopa
b. may be alleviated by discontinuing the neuroleptic
c. occurs in only about 1% of patients treated with a neuroleptic
d. is always irreversible
b. may be alleviated by discontinuing the neuroleptic
Grand mal epilepsy is associated with:
a. tonic-clonic seizures
b. myoclonic seizures
c. absence seizures
d. psychomotor seizures
a. tonic-clonic seizures
All sensory systems except ____ have connections through the thalamus:
a. touch
b. vision
c. audition
d. olfaction
d. olfaction (smell) is not part of the thalamic relay system
A test is said to be ____ when fixed administration and scoring procedures have been established and norms have been developed.
standardized
______ tests have a well-defined scoring procedure, while _____ tests rely, to some degree, on the scorers judgment.
objective; subjective
Speed tests are often contrasted to _____ tests, which measure an examinee's level of ability or knowledge rather than speed of responding.
power
Behavioral assessment can be conceptualized in terms of four components: stimulus, organixm, response, and _____.
consequences
______ provides a bibliography of commercially-published tests, while _____ contains both facutal info and critical reviews.
Tests in Print; Mental Measurements Yearbook