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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Flat affect is an example of this symptom type.
negative symptom
This is the most common structural abnormality seen in schizophrenia.
enlarged ventricles in the brain
This model of schizophrenia is flawed because it produces hallucinations that are pleasant and visual.
The LSD model.
PCP causes dysfunction at this receptor, leading to a state that is highly similar to schizophrenia
NMDA receptor (glutamate receptor)
This treatment can be given in addition to an antipsychotic medication in order to treat the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia
List some of the positive symptoms in schizophrenia.
Delusions, hallucination, through disorders that revovles around religion, illusion of grandeur, paranoia.
Hallucinations are typically olfactory and auditory. Hearing things that are bad about them, or commands.
list some of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Flat affect, disorganized affect, decreased or disturbed social interaction
list some of the cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia.
decreased executive function, attention, decreased memory by one standard deviation
Describe the onset of schizophrenia.
During adolescence, young adulthood.
men 18-25 yrs
Women 25-30 yrs of age
How prominent is schizophrenia?
1% of the population, equally prominent across gender.
What is a prodromal phase?
the period of time that preceeds a full blown schizophrenia. Stress seems to trigger this phase.
What is the rule of 1/3 in terms of schizophrenia prognosis?
A third have good outcome
A third have moderate but stable impairment
A third have persistent, progressive deficits with no return to baseline, typically lifetime institutionalized.
Is genetics a likely cause of schizophrenia?
It has a twin concordance rate of 46%.
and the closer you are to a relative that suffers from schizophrenia, the more likely you will get it.
List a few possible environmental factors known to be associated with schizophrenia.
1) maternal nutrition (based on malnourished population)
2) maternal infection such as influenza (7x more likely to get it)
3) season of birth (related to flu)
4) urban birth (related to flu ?)
5) OB complications (e.g. using forceps etc)
6) stress prenatally or maturally.
What are some of the strutural abnormalities in schizophrenia?
1) enlarged ventricles
2) decreased cortical volume
3) fewer axons and dendrites
What are some problems associated with using structural abnormalities as diagnosis standards?
1) Features lack specificity, alcoholics an have enlarged ventricles as well
2) features overlap with controls, healthy individuals can have enlarged ventricles without exhibiting any problems.
What are some of the functional abnomality associated with schizophrenia?
Main: hypofrontality (decreased activity in the frontal lobe, esp prefrontal cortex)
Additional: abnormal activity of the limbic system/region. Esp in amygdala during emotional tasks.
Describe the dopamine hypothesis.
Thorazine was used to treat schizophrenia, and it is a DA antagonist. therefore, schizophrenia might be caused by excessive DA in system. causes positive symptoms as seen in cocaine and amphetamine abuse.
Name a few conventional neuropleptics
Chlorpromazine, Haloperidal, Risperidone
D2 receptor antagonist seem to be most effective
What are some of the draw backs in the dopamine hypothesis?
- DA antagonist only relieve positive symptoms, doesn't help with the negative ones
- not everyone response to DA antagonist
- extrapyramidal side effects ( tardive dyskinesia, decreased movement control)
What is Rauwolfia serpentine?
herb treatment for "madness" in India.
Describe the amphetamine model of schizophrenia
Abuse of amphetamine induces postive symptoms and symptoms can be alleviated by antipsychotics. If schizophrenic patients take amphetamine, it exacerbate symptoms. It increases the norepinephrine, serotonin and opamine neurotransmitter in the brain.
What is the draw back of the amphetamine model of schizophrenia?
Amphetamine does not induce negative symptoms that are often found in Schiphrenia. it only explain positive symptoms.
Describe the LSD model of schizophrenia.
LSD is a serotonin agonist, specifically 5-HT agonist. It is very potent and induces pleasant visual hallucination.
What are the draw backs of the LSD model?
The hallucination induced by LSD is unlike those observed in schizophrenia.
LSD: visual, pleasant
Schizo: auditory, olfactory, unpleasant
LSD abusers are highly suggestible while Schizo are highly resistant to suggestions.
What is use to block serotonin?
Clozapine is a 5-HT2a antagonist, it blocks it. Does not cause extrapyramidal side effects but increase chances of agranulocytosis as a side effect
Describe the PCP/Ketamine model of schizophrenia.
PCP is an antagonist at NMDA receptors. It reduces NMDA receptors activity.
It induces both positive and negative symptoms observed in schizophrenia. E.g. paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, cognitive impairment. Chronic PCP usage induces persistent symptom manifestation.
What does the PCP model of schizophrenia suggest?
- NMDA receptors are underactive in schizophrenia
- dminished glutamate activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.
- effect: reduces dopamine
How can we enhance glutamate receptors' function?
We cannot directly administer glutamate - it would cause excitoxicity that damage neurons....