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149 Cards in this Set

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What are the 5 viewpoints of biological psychology?
1) Description of behavior, 2) its evolution, 3) its lifetime development, 4) its underlying biological mechanisms, and 5) applications of knowledge to dysfunctional behavior
What are the three approaches to understanding the brain-behavior link?
1) somatic intervention: alter a structure or function of the brain or body
2) behavioral intervention: change an organism's behavior, examine for changes in bio
3) correlation: finding the extent to which a bio measure corresponds with a behavior measure
Basic unit of the nervous system is:
Neuron
The hypothesis that the brain is composed of separate cells that are structurally, metabolically, and functionally distinct:
Neuron doctrine
Researcher who showed that neurons are not CONTINUOUS, but rather CONTIGUOUS:
Ramon y Cajal
Non-neural brain cells that provide structural, nutritional, and other support to the brain:
Glial cells, neuroglia
Structures in cell body where genetic info is translated to produce proteins:
Ribosomes
Extensions of neuron cell bodies that are the receptive surfaces:
dendrites
Area of neuron receiving info from other neurons or specialized sensory structures, corresponding to dendrites:
Input Zone
Cell body region
soma (pl. somata)
Area of neuron cell body where signals are combined and transformed:
Integration Zone
Area corresponding with axon, leading away from cell body and towards axon terminals:
Conduction Zone
Area corresponding to axon terminals, where cell's activity is communicated to others:
Output Zone
1/10 of a centimeter
millimeter
1/1000 of a millimeter
micrometer
histological stain that fills a small number of neurons with dark, silver-based dye
Golgi stain
histological stain outlining all cell bodies via attraction of dye to RNA in nuclei; helps measure cell body size and cell density of regions:
Nissl stain
histological technique showing the distribution of radioactive chemicals in tissues, enabling researchers to know (for example) what parts of the brain are affected by a drug
autoradiography
method of detecting types of proteins in tissues, using manufactured antibodies that attach to target proteins and are then chemically treated to be made visible
immunocytochemistry (ICC)
method for detecting specific RNA transcripts in tissue by using radioactively-labelled bits of nucleic acid that will bind with the targeted RNA
in situ hybridization
class of genes showing rapid, temporary increases in expression in activated cells
immediate early genes (IEGs)
common example of an IEG
c-fos
enzyme found in a particular plant's roots which is useful for determining cells of origin for a particular set of axons, by being taken up at axon terminals and traveling backward
horseradish peroxidase (HRP)
3 principal types of neurons:
1) multi-polar
2) bipolar
3) unipolar/monopolar
many dendrites, single axon, most common type of neuron:
multi-polar
single process/extension, branching in two directions from cell body, one toward dendrites, one toward axon terminals; e.g. those transmitting touch info from body into spinal cord:
unipolar/monopolar neurons
single dendrite, single axon, common in sensory systems like vision:
bipolar neurons
nerve cell transmitting motor messages that stimulate a muscle or gland:
motoneuron
neuron directly affected by changes in environment:
sensory neuron
neuron that receives input from and sends output to other neurons; vast majority of neurons
interneurons
major types of glial cells:
1)astrocytes
2) microglial cells
3)oligodendrocytes
4)Scwhann cells
star-shaped glial cell with numerous processes running in all directions, often regulating bloodflow and monitoring nearby synaptic activity:
astrocyte
extremely small glial cells that clean up cellular debris and protect injured cell sites
microglial cells
glial cell that forms myelin in the Central Nervous System (brain & spinal cord):
oligodendrocyte
fatty insulation that coats conduction zones of neurons, formed by glial cells, and improving speed of conduction:
myelin
gap between a pair of myelinated axonal segments where axonal membrane is exposed:
node of Ranvier
demyelinating disease (lit. "many scars") that can have catastrophic results:
multiple sclerosis
glial cell providing myelin in the peripheral nervous system (everything outside brain, spinal cord):
Schwann cell
swelling of injured tissue, e.g. glial cells in brain, that can compound brain injuries:
edema
elaborate branching of some dendrites:
arborization
referring to region of synapse releasing neurotransmitters:
presynaptic
referring to region of synapse receiving and responding to neurotransmitters:
postsynaptic
specialized membrane of axon terminal of transmitting neuron; releases neurotransmitters:
presynaptic membrane
space between presynaptic and postsynaptic regions:
synaptic cleft
small spherical structure containing molecules of neurotransmitter, which fuses with presynaptic membrane in response to neuronal electrical activity:
synaptic vesicle
specialized protein molecule on postsynaptic membrane that captures and reacts to neurotransmitters:
receptors
common number of synaptic contacts on a neuron:
5,000-10,000
average synapse size:
less than a square micrometer
cone shaped area from which the axon protrudes from the cell body, functionally corresponding to the "integration zone":
axon hillock
a branch of the same axon from a neuron:
axon collateral
to provide neural input; to make synaptic contact with another cell:
innervate
movement of material (proteins, recycled materials) within the neuron, to and from cell body:
axonal transport
visible demarcations of the nervous system, e.g. CNS/PNS, cerebral hemispheres)
gross neuroanatomy
three component nerve-groupings that make up the Peripheral Nervous System:
1) cranial nerves
2) spinal nerves
3) autonomic nervous system
collection of axons bundled together outside CNS:
nerve
regulatory system primarily controlling the glands and smooth muscles of the viscera
autonomic nervous system
12 pairs (I-XII) of cranial nerves that serve sensory and motor systems in head and neck
I. Olfactory
II. Optic
III. Oculomotor
IV. Trochlear
V. Trigeminal
VI. Abducens
VII. Facial
VIII. Vestibulocochlear
IX. Glossopharyngeal
X. Vagus
XI. Spinal accessory
XII. Hypoglossal
3 cranial nerves that are exclusively sensory pathways to the brain:
olfactory (I), optic (II), and vestibulocochlear (VIII)
5 cranial nerves that are exclusively motor pathways from the brain:
oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), abducens (VI), spinal accessory (XI), & hypoglossal (XII)
4 cranial nerves that have both motor and sensory functions (on separate axons, of course):
trigeminal (V), facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), & vagus (X)
how many pairs of spinal nerves?
31 (one member of each pair to a side of the body)
spinal nerves are also known as:
somatic nerves
each spinal nerve is made by the fusion of two branches, called "roots", respectively known as:
dorsal & ventral roots
branch of a spinal nerve that carries sensory info from the PNS to the spinal cord:
dorsal root
branch of a spinal nerve that carries motor messages from the spinal cord to the PNS:
ventral root
general name and number of membranes surrounding spinal cord and brain:
3 meninges
each layer of meninges, from outer to inner:
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
names of spinal cord regions, and the number of spinal cord segments (and attached pairs of nerves) in each:
cervical: 8
thoracic: 12
lumbar: 5
sacral: 5
coccygeal: 1
component of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord:
sympathetic nervous system
component of the autonomic nervous system arising from "above" and "below" the sympathetic, i.e. from cranial nerves and the sacral spinal cord
parasympathetic nervous system
two general types of nerves in both the sympathetic an parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system:
preganglionic and postganglionic
collections of nerve cell bodies found in various locations, and innervating major organs:
autonomic ganglia
chain of ganglia on each side of spinal column:
sympathetic chain
local network of sensory and motor neurons that regulate digestion, resembling a mesh, controlled by CNS:
enteric nervous system
neurotransmitter produced and released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity; also produced in brain-stem and found throughout the brain:
norepinephrine/noradrenaline
neurotransmitter produced & released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, motoneurons, and various neurons in the brain to slow down various organic processes:
acetylcholine
executive portion of the CNS:
brain, i.e. cerebrum
ridges of tissue formed by external folding of brain tissue:
gyri
troughs or furrows between the ridges of tissue formed by folded brain tissue:
sulci
the 4 sectors of the cerebral hemispheres:
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes
C-shaped bundle of axons allowing communication between the cerebral hemispheres:
corpus callosum
deep fissure demarcating the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes; also known as the lateral sulcus:
Sylvian fissure
fissure dividing the frontal and parietal lobes:
central sulcus
strip of frontal cortex, just in front of the central sulcus, that is crucial for motor control:
precentral gyrus
strip of parietal cortex, just behind the central sulcus, that mediates the sense of touch:
postcentral gyrus
areas/layers of brain and other nervous tissue that is dominated by cell bodies:
gray matter
areas/layers of brain and other nervous tissue dominated by axon fibers with myelin sheathing:
white matter
three planar orientations for viewing brain and body:
horizontal (top and bottom), sagittal (left side and right side), and coronal or transverse (front and back)
anterior (e.g. a ship's prow)
rostral
posterior (e.g. tail)
caudal
toward the middle
medial
toward the side
lateral
referencing a 2nd location on the same side as the first location
ipsilateral
referencing a 2nd location on the opposite side as the first
contralateral
near vs. distant
proximal vs. distal
an axon, tract, or nerve carrying info INTO a region of interest is:
afferent
an axon, tract or nerve carrying info AWAY from a region of interest:
efferent
embryonic CNS, with divisions corresponding to the future forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain:
neural tube
forebrain
prosencephalon
midbrain
mesencephalon
hindbrain
rhombencephalon
frontal subdivision of the prosencephalon, containing the cerebral hemispheres:
telencephalon
what is contained in the cerebral hemispheres:
cortex+basal ganglia+limbic systems
posterior part of the prosencephalon, containing the thalamus & hypothalamus:
diencephalon
divisions of the rhombencephalon:
metencephalon & myelencephalon
what does the metencephalon contain?
cerebellum + pons
what is the myelencephalon more often known as?
medulla
what is contained in the "brainstem"?
midbrain, pons, & medulla
aggregation of neurons in a given region of the brain:
nuclei
bundles of axons in regions of brain:
tracts
the basal ganglia are composed of:
1) caudate nucleus, 2) globus pallidus, 3) putamen, 4) subthalamic nucleus, and 5) substantia nigra
loosely-defined, widespread network of structures involved in emotion and learning:
limbic system
the limbic system includes:
1) amygdala, 2) hippocampus, 3) fornix, 4) cingulate gyrus, 5) olfactory bulb, 6) hypothalamus, and 7) mammilary bodies
complex cluster of nuclei acting as a way station to the cerebral cortex:
thalamus
paired gray matter structures on the dorsal surface of the midbrain, involved in visual attention:
superior colliculi
paired gray matter structures on the dorsal surface of the midbrain, involved in auditory reception:
inferior colliculi
dorsal region of the midbrain, including both pairs of colliculi:
tectum
a part of the basal ganglia located in the midbrain, containing neurons that release dopamine:
substantia nigra
motor center in the midbrain that communicates with motoneurons in the spinal cord:
red nucleus
a network extending from the medulla to the thalamus, implicated in sleep and arousal functions:
reticular formation
large neurons composing the middle layer of the cerebellum's folds:
Purkinje cells
small nerve cells in the bottom layer of the cerebellum's folds:
granule cells
axons from the granule cells that compose the outer layer of the cerebellum:
parallel fibers
immediately ventral to the cerebellum:
pons
cortical tissue with three layers or unlayered organization:
allocortex
# of distinct cortical layers:
6
distinction of cortical layer I:
few cell bodies
distinction of cortical layers V and VI:
many neurons with large cell bodies
large nerve cell that is prominent in the cortex, esp. layers III and V:
pyramidal cells
extension of pyramidal cells that reaches the outermost layer of cortex:
apical dendrites
dendrites that spread out horizontally from pyramidal cells:
basal dendrites
info-processing units perpendicular to cortical layers, extending from white matter below to the gray surface above:
cortical columns
series of chambers filled with CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) in the center of the brain:
ventricular system
specialized membrane lining the inside of the lateral ventricles, and secreting CSF:
choroid plexus
arteries arising from the carotids, that provide blood to the anterior poles and medial surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres:
anterior cerebral arteries
arteries arising from the carotids, providing blood to the lateral surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres:
middle cerebral arteries
arteries that ascend the vertebrae and enter the base of the skull:
vertebral arteries
artery formed by the fusion the vertebral arteries, providing blood to the brainstem and the posterior cerebral arteries:
basilar artery
arteries arising from the basilar, providing blood to the posterior aspects of the cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum and the brainstem:
posterior cerebral arteries
structure at the base of the brain (rostral to the brainstem) formed by the major cerebral arteries:
circle of Willis
brain-imaging wherein cerebral blood vessels are injected with a dye and then x-rayed to aid in the diagnosis of vascular disease:
angiography
computer analysis of brain structure using x-ray absorption at multiple positions around the head:
computerized axial tomography
technique to study brain structure, using magnetic energy to line up proteins in water molecules in the brain, then knocking them over with a blast of radio waves, then detecting micro-emissions of radio waves as the protons realign:
magnetic resonance imaging
technique to examine brain region function, using radioactive tracers (often attached to glucose) and multiple-position detectors:
positron emission tomography
technique to study brain region function with rapidly oscillating magnetic fields that detect oxygen availability:
functional MRI
use of reflected near-infrared light to reveal the activity of cortical regions:
optical imaging
use of focal magnetic currents to briefly stimulate the cortex, allowing mapping of the resulting patterns of activation through OI:
transcranial magnetic stimulation
detectors used to sense changes in magnetic fields created by neuronal activity:
Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices
method that uses SQUIDS to create realtime maps of brain activity from localized cortical magnetic fields:
magnetoencephalography: